Infertility is becoming a significant problem globally. To find out the epidemiology of infertility particularly male infertility a study was carried out in a South Indian state. In the present study from the couples visiting a fertility clinic in the Kerala state of India for primary infertility treatment and consultation 750 families were chosen for socio-demographic and clinical study. From the study it was observed that 55.87% of males,41.33% of females,2.13% of both partnersand 0,67percent of unknown factors are responsibleforinfertility. The sociodemographic and clinical study of the identified infertile males showed that all are literate,and 73.98% were in the age group 31-40 years,78.24% were unable to attain fatherhood within 5 years after marriage.Among the 419 males identified with infertility 78.26 percent are working as software professionals usingcomputers, laptops, WI-FI ambience, mobile phones and other microwave radiating devices for over 8 hours per day either in India or abroad having every chance of exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation(nonionizing radiations) and thermal emission. Clinical evaluation of the infertile males showed that deformities in the semen is the major reason (80.19%) for infertility. However other factors like endocrine dysfunctions (10.26%), and varicoceole in genital part (4.62%) also influence the immunity. In the present survey, four types of sperm disorders were observed. This includeoligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in 35% of the cases, asthenoteratozoospermia (AT) in 40% of the sample, Teratospermia (T) in 5% of the males and mixed of all these problems in 13 percent of males. The study showed that the incidence of Asthenoteratozoospermia is significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other disorders. Next to AT, OAT prevalence is high. The long hours of exposure tomicrowave radiation emitting digital devicesare believed to induce stress oxidative changes in male reproductive physiology followed by DNAdamagesin the sperm cells thereasons for male infertility. Lifestyle changes likefood habit, dress code, obesity, hormonal changes, work pressure, and certain medications may be the other reasons to strengthen semen defects. Due to COVID-19 lockdown online learning and job work carried out through mobile phones, computer laptops, and WI-FI ambiance and other radiation-emitting gadgets for several hours. So children at and reproductive adults involved in online programme for several hours should plan for their reproductive safety.
Elizabeth Mathew K, Padmalatha C, Ranjitsingh AJA*