University of Payam Noor, Torbat-e Jam, Iran.
Received: March 07, 2016; Accepted: April 23, 2016; Published: May 02, 2016
Citation: Shokhmgar Z, Effectivness of Positive Thinking Skills into Team Approach to Mental Health and Self-esteem of Students Torbat-e Jam city. Electronic J Biol, 12:3
This study aimed to investigate positive thinking skills on mental health, self-esteem of university's students in Torbat-e Jam city. The research population included all of students in University of Torbat-e Jam and sample of 30 students who were selected randomly in experimental and control groups. The instruments used in this study are Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, Self Esteem Scale and guide positive thinking skills. Research design was pretest, posttest with control group. After random selection of experimental and control groups, pre-test were conducted on two groups, experimental intervention (positive thinking skills) were carried out after training and both groups were assessed. The results show that positive thinking skills increase self-esteem and mental health of students in the experimental group compared with control.
Positive thinking skills; Mental health; Self-esteem.
Rapid advances has created vacuum in technology and information, despite advantages, modern era. The growing wave of pessimism and depression, hopelessness, lowering age of suicide, divorce and crime increasing and many other psychosocial problems are irrefutable facts show that mental health of human communities disappeared. According to Shafiabadi  humans are so preoccupied and fascinated by machine (technology) have been human identities with self and others lost . In such circumstances, positive thinking skills for all people, especially youth to strengthen and improve communication with their positive, positive relationships with others and to life (the world) and increased self-esteem and their academic achievement seems very useful. Learning these skills helps students better understand themselves and about their opinion about self and the world (life) curious. Optimism and positive thinking in education, students are encouraged to experience positive and recognize their good and their role in promoting respect and self-esteem and recognition, however, ability to recognize positive aspects of business them. They also learn to make world adopt proactive stance and form own life, rather than what is on them to adopt passive way. From the perspective of behavioral science and psychology, mental health, physical and mental pain or joy of arrangements, psychological and style arises. We even wider, larger, healthier, and more beautiful to think, our objective of a wider, deeper and more enjoyable, this is the way we think determine our quality of life.
Many of the negative thoughts invade people's minds, the fact that people have beliefs about themselves, others and their world. Part of that help people feel and perform better in their daily lives by giving them training to control and change negative thoughts or done wrong.
In this regard, it seems that positive thinking skills to individuals to control and change negative thoughts can affect or false.
Crystal and colleagues in meta-analysis to examine results of 40 studies on effectiveness of positive psychology showed that positive interventions are looking to increase well-being and reduce symptoms of depression.
Positive component approach to reduce anxiety and depression, and increase life satisfaction, mental health, hope and happiness of the people has been effective .
Stewart and colleagues suggested that happiness and mental health are important areas of research in positive psychology and has recently been studied extensively in the field of youth population. They believe that genuine happiness is to identify and develop the most fundamental abilities and use them in love, parenting and domestic work and abilities and virtues as shield in front of psychological disorders can to be recovered .
It seems that many students due to non-negative and irrational thoughts and pessimistic about future they are disappointed and risk of psychological problems such as depression further threatens their health. Considerable population of students about their problems and disturbing look exaggerated and consider themselves as individuals have no control over environment or not destructive behaviors.
Use positive thinking techniques in psychotherapy by Khodayarifard shows that interventions based on positive reinforcement personal interpretations could lead to increase in its description of individual positive and clients benefit more from self-confidence, inconsistencies family decline and depression to improve clients. Therefore, for positive spirit of students about themselves, others and the world is useful and effective knowledge and ideas to life with clear, realistic vision and with confidence spend, need intervention and training is felt more than ever for them to have hope and motivation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate positive thinking skills on mental health, self-esteem of university's students in Torbat-e Jam city.
Research design was pretest, posttest with control group. The research population included all of students in University of Torbat-e Jam and sample of 30 students who were selected randomly in experimental and control groups. After randomly selection of experimental and control groups, the pre-test were conducted on two groups, experimental intervention (positive thinking skills) were carried out after completing training program then both groups were assessed. Positive thinking skills took place by using instructions csikszentmihalyi and seligmam and Carr.
Goldberg's general health questionnaire: Goldberg's general health questionnaire is original questionnaire by Goldberg. This tool can be used to study psychological health. High scores on this questionnaire on general health status deteriorated down Vnmrat better public health implications. 28-question mental health through the implementation of factor analysis on long form it is designed. General Health Questionnaire has 28 questions with 4 subscales; physical complaints, anxiety, depression, social work. Internal and external studies show that 28-question general health has good validity and reliability. Yaghob reported in study of sensitivity and specificity of this questionnaire in best cut-off point (23 points) by 86.5% and 82%.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the end of the questionnaire is ongoing in each of subscales: 92%, 88%, 91%, 75.83%, 0.69%, 0.88%, 0.0%, 89%, (p <0.001). Also validity of the questionnaire, 0.67 to 0.76 and in classification 0.83 reliability test-retest 0.85 is reported. The test consists of 28 questions and each of them has 7 4 scale questions. Questions and scale in such way that tandem arrangement of questions 1 to 7 on scale of physical symptoms, question 8 to 14 on scale of anxiety of questions 15 to 21 on scale of symptoms of social dysfunction, question 22 to 28 on a scale of depressive symptoms.
Self-esteem scale: Self Esteem Scale, 58-item self-report scale pencil-paper that detector materials are 8 and 50 of the other 4 subscales: self-respect, self-esteem, social (peer), self-family (parents), and self-esteem (school). Smith et al have gained 0.88 retest coefficient after 5-week test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.70 and after 3 years of this scale. Factor analysis has shown that in scales, different operating measure of self-esteem.
Shokrkon and Nisi reported test-retest reliability coefficient of scale for students; boys and girls reported 0.90 and 0.92 respectively. Savant with implementation of this scale on a sample of students, split-half reliability of scale with 0.83 and 0.84 has been estimated using Cronbach's alpha.
Shokrkon and Nisi showed test-retest reliability coefficient of the scale for boys’ and girls' students, 0.90 and 0.92. Alameh with implementation of this scale on sample of students, split-half reliability of scale with 0.83 and 0.84 has been estimated by using Cronbach's alpha.
After the intervention, mental health and mental health of students in experimental group improved while control group had no significant difference. The results between experimental and control groups in all aspects of mental health after intervention showed significant differences (P <0.05) (Table 1).
Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of the pre-test and post-test scores on mental health.
After the intervention, the experimental group improved students' self-esteem, while control group had no significant difference. The results between experimental and control groups in self-esteem after intervention showed significant differences (P < 0.05) (Table 2).
Table 2. Mean pre-test and post-test self-esteem.
4. Discussion and Conclusion
As the results showed that the scores of mental health and mental health and self-esteem of students in experimental group after the intervention, no significant change was observed while control group was not significant. The results between experimental and control groups in all aspects of mental health and self-esteem after the intervention showed significant differences.
To compare results, exactly similar survey on mental health effects of positive thinking skills, but positive thinking is one of the most important components of psychological well-being, so result of this study carried out under the agreement.
Alberto and Joyner  in their study showed that increases in mental health education, optimism, hope, self-esteem and decreased depression.
Malek  in their study showed that positive mental health and feeling of well-being is Ngrbas increasing happiness.
Lee et al.  in their study showed that optimism boosts mental health education, self-esteem and decreased depression.
Dreyer  reported that between negative and poor compatibility problem-solving orientation and problem-solving skills there is positive predictor of effective and efficient compatibility.
Barkhordari and colleagues  has confirmed impact of positive thinking skills to increase motivation and happiness high school students.
Reinforcement-based interventions can enhance the positive perception of one lead positive description and may be more effective with new impressions and a better behavior cause increased mental health and self-esteem.
According to findings, it can be concluded that positive thinking skills significant role in mental health and self-esteem of students and can be used in study of psycho-educational interventions, counseling and appropriate manner treatment than students who considered their lives are negatively oriented.
Limitations of the study have a detailed look at the issue and many of the things that are hidden from the view of others. Health and education as well as changes resulting from the work of the psychologist is concerned, with main concern for officials and participants is very different.
Psychologists expect minor changes, while officials and participants expect significant changes and is very objective. It was due to factors that convinced authorities to issue permits to do research with in universities is very difficult. Training subjects with overlapping clock hour training sessions is also another problem. They need a place that is approved for the treatment of officials is able confounding variables (noise, traffic, etc.) control; access to place was difficult in these conditions.
• Research On youth issues less of matters relating to adults, so it is recommended that interested researchers, in this context in mind.
• The researchers are planning to conduct research in educational settings, to ensure the implementation of the cooperation of the authorities.
• Given that positive thinking is one of success factors that enhance mental health and selfesteem and so on it is recommended that authorities pay more attention to this factor and workshops and training courses in order to strengthen and promote sense of empowerment and hold students forecasts.
Future researchers suggest that the impact of positive thinking skills on different groups in terms of age, gender, educational level, etc. are measured.