Azadeh Zaker, Asghar Dadsetan, Zohreh Nasiri, Somayeh Azimi and Fatemeh Rahnama*
Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University,Torbat'e Jam Branch, Iran.
Received: June 09, 2016; Accepted: July 12, 2016; Published: July 19, 2016
Citation: Zaker A, Dadsetan A, Nasiri Z, et al. Effectiveness of Happiness on Self-efficacy of Students. Electronic J Biol, 12:4
This study was students' self-efficacy effectiveness of happiness. Quasi-experimental research designs study was pretest-posttest control group. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Torbat-e Jam city that 60 teachers were selected by convenience sampling method and sample two experimental group (n=30) and control group (n=30). Scherrer's Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was used to gather data and analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The findings showed that happiness training group increased efficacy has been tested. It seems that students' self-efficacy can be improved by happiness training.
Happiness; Self-efficacy; Student.
Japanese in final report templates 21st century to point out that the central point aim of education should cultivate this passion after living in environment with growth opportunities and attention will be focused on thoughts that individuality . Review of emotions field of psychology is assigned to positive side of excitement, happiness and joy that whole range of grief and despair to euphoria covers. Happy people and vibrant, active, creative and optimistic, new look at anything they see and learn lessons from each experience. The results of several studies suggest positive effects on mental health of human happiness. Happy people are better able to face and overcome their problems of life and happiness enhances teach .
Joy and happiness as happiness is relative thing. Everyone has something to be happy and special way. According to findings of psychology, when one is happy, world is more pleasant, easier and safer decides. His relationships with people more loving and stronger and better prepared to help others find confidence in person and hope for the future is greater. But when he is sad, he lives in the dark, disturbing and even seemed futile. They will not to do and without trust is in itself goes down focus needs to be on defensive trying to be the first one being characterized is sad .
Since one of the most important mission of education is creating vibrancy in community. Development, human vitality, because considerable impact on all aspects of human personality and how not one- dimensional beings and character of cognitive, emotional, physical, social and spiritual formation, and mental and physical health due to all-round development and coordination of these dimensions to study happiness is one of leading variables .
According to happiness specifies several different concepts such as: happiness, pleasure, pleasant, etc . The number of psychologists points out that so- called mental happiness and general sense, include various types of assessments that person's life provides these assessments such as life satisfaction; excitement and positive mood and lack of depression and anxiety are included. According to Diener happiness and self-evaluation that provides her life. These assessments may have cognitive aspects, such as judgments about happiness of life is made or emotional aspects, including creating and excitement that in response to life events.
Therefore happiness consists of four components, namely: life satisfaction, positive emotions and good mood, lack of negative mood and emotions of other factors such as optimism, self-esteem and sense of prosperity. In this theory, individual characteristics of happiness is to have stronger immune systems and live longer, enjoy better social relationships deal effectively with difficult situations, creativity and success more and more inclined to help others also plans to increase the happiness that as result of training participants were increased happiness and satisfaction [5,6]. The study examined other variables that self-efficacy have been described "belief in merits of their overall for implementation of effective practice which involves efficiency improvements in all situations", or as "perception in about their ability to operate effectively in all different situations" .
That is person can be tight or loose in wide range of beliefs specific position or not functioning. On the other hand, some researchers point to a generalized self-efficacy which indicates general confidence in ability to cope in all jurisdictions or new positions [8,9]. This is self-serve, rate and social integration. This concept include several lower scores on academic achievement, emotional disorders, health, career choices socio-political changes .
Montazeri expressed happiness Iranian people and its influencing factors. This cross-sectional study with sample size of 27,883 people in whole country was estimated that each province's share was approximately 800 people. The results of logistic regression showed that in addition to socio-economic factors such as employment status, income level and city of residence, people's perception of their health impact on people's happiness.
Kesebir and Diener showed relationship between happiness and moral virtues and moral virtues to conclusion that happiness is closely together what human happiness to the moral virtues directed and moral virtues are happy to follow [11,12].
Diener and Ryan in their research and global cultural differences in cause of happiness and happiness and found that triggers positive emotions among different cultures. The study also shows them that in culture of some other factors such as income and life satisfaction more relevant while some factors such as social support is more associated with positive emotions .
Peterson and Seligman studied relationship of happiness (pleasure, activity and meaning) with life satisfaction and results showed that all the different aspects of happiness are significantly associated with life satisfaction . Those that received low grades in three dimensions happiness of life satisfaction scores were very low. Samadzadeh and Zadegan studied effectiveness of happiness training on quality of life of dialysis patients and cancer models examined. The sample 60 dialysis patients and cancer hospital in Ardabil . The results showed that happiness training to improve the quality of life of dialysis patients and cancer has been effective. Nasab and Verdian showed that depression score among group who participated in training sessions happiness lower than the control group . Lavassani et al. in their study showed that happiness training to increase efficiency and reduce stress study .
Quasi-experimental research designs to study pretest-posttest control group. The population consisted of all secondary school students in Torbat-e Jam city that 60 teachers were selected by convenience sampling method and sample two experimental group (n=30) and control group (n=30). Entry criteria include: high school student; no severe mental disorder, personality disorder lack simultaneously in other treatment programs and lack of individual counseling or drug therapy and exclusion criteria as for more than one session absenteeism and lack of cooperation with researchers at treatment program. Research tools include Scherrer's self-efficacy questionnaire, this scale was made by Sherer and colleagues built in 1982 and has 23 articles. Of these 23 substances, 17 of which are devoted to general self-efficacy and 6 other matter related to experiences in social situations. In this study,17-point scale is used. The validity of this scale in research of Barati, 0.79 is reported.
The session and procedure are mentioned in the form of Table 1.
|Referrals, pre-test and an explanation on how to attend meetings, cartoon Mr. Bean and the practice (collecting stories and content exhilarating allowed)||First|
|Practice review, outlines the importance of happiness in life and offering studies in the field and getting feedback from participants||Second|
|The introduction of technology education expression identifying the type of feeling, identify the feeling and atmosphere of encompassing feeling in the body, the correct name for it and the ability of emotions||Third|
|Briefly explain previous sessions, laugh was raised in Islam and the traditions of humor Mr. Bean movie||Fourth|
|Training avoids disturbing thoughts. Getting feedback and assignment||Fifth|
|Talk about self-efficacy and collection of proverbs and informative notes explaining the theory of self-efficacy and documents||Sixth|
|Trading with examples of healthy and unhealthy character, introduces the features of healthy persons, and providing feedback to the task||Seventh|
|Giving priority to the joy of learning, training courses decrease wish expectations||Eighth|
|Time management training courses and technical education live in the present||ninth|
|Overall necessary explanations to the students about their physical and mental characteristics in this period and how to cope with humor and dissemination of videos.||Tenth|
|Talk about how to cope with problems at home, school, community, so that the person cannot be damaged. Tips humorous definition video playback||Eleventh|
|Summary hearings before and run posttest||Twelfth|
Table 1. The procedure of analysis.
Analysis of covariance was used to analyze test data. Happiness training on self-efficacy affects students. Results of Table 2 show significance level (0.815) is greater than it can be concluded that variances are equal groups. Results The Table 3 shows that the highest average post-test of the experimental group (46.35) and the lowest average pre-test of control group (40.07) which shows effect of happiness on self-efficacy. Results Table 4 shows significant difference in rate of self-efficacy subjects regarding type of test (pre-test, post-test), (F(1,57)=8.206, p<0.05). Effectiveness between two groups of subjects in control group F(57,1)=1.958, p<0.01 there was no significant difference. With 99% we conclude that happiness training is effective.
Table 2. Test Levin (homogeneity of variance).
Table 3. Descriptive results pre-test, post-test self-efficacy.
|Variable||Sum of square||Df||Mean of square||F||Sig.|
Table 4. Analysis of variance.
This study was effectiveness of happiness on students' self-efficacy. The results showed that happiness training improves students' self-efficacy is result of research proof. Self-efficacy has important role in achieving happiness [16,17]. Person's happiness optimistic trust the source of his abilities and real relationship with environment is condition of promotion, provided that it makes no sense without moral and intellectual development. Caprara et al. argue that self-efficacy beliefs emotional and interpersonal and social - both now and over time has positive impact on positive thoughts and happiness . Teenagers about managing negative emotions and positive self-efficacy and positive expectations about future create interpersonal relationships, maintaining high image and perception of life satisfaction and positive emotions are experienced. Box and Robertin argued that cognitive training is kind of happiness behavioral cognitive restructuring increase people's cognitive functioning. Methods used in this model include reduced level of expectations, eliminating concerns, optimistic and positive thoughts strengthen presence in present, priority on happiness and remove negative emotions and strengthen presence of a person's social problems and when they use their cognitive mental and physical health of the people.
These results showed that with increasing happiness of people also increases their self-efficacy. Happiness is source of confidence, optimistic person about abilities. Self-efficacy in managing life situations to create realistic expectations and positive thinking about life events and lack of trust and confidence in ability would cause negative emotions. These people failing to control threats, experiencing high anxiety and lack of self-efficacy will expand and many environmental aspects of risk and threatening sees that it would be reducing their happiness. It can be said with the increase of one another can be increased. According to results of this study suggest, application and use of educational programs focused school counselors and family happiness to create positive emotions in students, increased confidence in ability of the individual and train for adjusting manage daily stress.