Rapid industrialization is a global trend and a cause of concern for those who care about its unwanted consequences. Industries rely heavily on chemical processes requiring heavy metal compounds which eventually lead to their efflux or emission into the surrounding environment. Heavy metals are toxic in nature to varying degrees and cause a host of diseases in man. Lead (Pd) is a greater health hazard owing to its extensive use in the products that come in our contact on a daily basis. Lead pipes are a source of lead exposure through water whereas the antiknock compounds cause its exposure through air. This review takes a closer look at the various physiological effects of lead toxicity in the light of latest studies that have added significant pieces of experimental evidence to our knowledge of mechanisms underlying toxic effects of Lead which often prove lethal and may even go undetected. The review discusses the possible sources and routes of lead exposure and elaborates on its toxic effects with special reference to nervous system, cardiovascular system, haemopoietic system, excretory system and reproductive system. It is hoped that a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of lead toxicity will lead to development of better strategies of prevention and treatment of lead toxicity.
Priyadarsini Sanghamitra, Jyotirmayee Mishra, Swostideepa Sahoo , Ramakrushna Bastia, Nabaneeta Basak, Gaurav Kumar, Supriya Priyadarsani