Feeding habit and reproductive biology of Gudusia chapra were studied on specimens captured from two floodplain lakes in India. The fish showed a planktophagus and omnivorous feeding habit, algae constituting bulk of the food item in the gut. Feeding intensity fluctuated between seasons, pre and post spawning months showing higher intensity than the spawning months. Seasonal variation of gonado-somatic index (GSI) and ova diameter indicated that G. chapra spawned twice (May and October) in a year in these two floodplain lakes. Overall ratio between male and female (1:1.56) significantly departed from the expected ratio of sex (1:1). It was concluded that G. chapra exhibited an early maturity under environmental conditions of floodplain lakes and reduced feeding activity could serve as an indicator of spawning activity of the fish.