Wood anatomy of Calligonum mongolicum Turcz. was described from an ecological perspective. This species showed similar wood structure to that species published in the same genus . This species has distinct growth ring boundaries, ring-porosity, distinct helical thickenings, simple perforation plate, nonseptate fibre, axial parenchyma, uni- or 2-5-seriate heterogeneous rays, and alternate intervessel pitting. It was observed that there is a slightly increase of fibre length as the diameter from the pith increases. However, the vessel element length remained more or less constant from pith to bark. Furthermore, the relationships between anatomical features and adaptability to desert environments were discussed.