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Distribution and Potential Impact of Metal Pollutants in the Coastal Environment: A Case Study with Special Reference to Coastal Aquaculture in Red River Delta of Viet Nam

Study was conducted to investigate the distribution pattern and impact of metal pollutants in the fast growing coastal aquaculture industry of Viet Nam. Mud and water samples were collected from randomly selected eleven stations of two aquaculture prone coastal zones of Northern Viet Nam and fourteen metals were analysed using ICP-MS. Production data (shrimp and fish) of the respected stations were also collected from local farmers and fisher man. Results revealed that excepting few locations the distribution of As (mud, 180 - 383 μg/kg and water, 14.26 – 31 μg/l), Pb (mud, 4.9 – 207.3 μg/kg and water, 0 – 0.15 μg/l), Cd (mud, 0.62 – 44.1 μg/kg and water, 0 – 0.06 μg/l), Cr (mud, 117 – 192.5 μg/kg and water, 1.42 – 4.58 μg/l), Ni (mud, 49.9 – 100 μg/kg and water, 0 – 0.111 μg/l), Be (mud, 4.06 – 10.5 μg/kg and water, 0.02 – 0.051 μg/l), Ba (mud, 194.3 – 5153 μg/kg and water, 18.52 - 50 μg/l), Fe (mud, 42642 – 72397 μg/kg and water, 192 – 669 μg/l), Se (mud, 0 – 21 μg/kg and water, 18 – 82.23 μg/l) and Sb (mud, 348.36 - 1463 μg/kg and water, 0 μg/l) showed a higher values than the WHO permissible limit of drinking water concentration, whereas remaining four metal elements (Cu, Hg, Al and Ag) pronounced normal level in their concentration. A remarkable decreasing (20 - 40%) trend was observed in the production (shrimp and fish) within last five years in all investigated places. From the present study, therefore, it may be concluded that various metal containing industrial wastes contaminating the food chain of coastal ecosystem via water and sediment which ultimately affect severely to the cultured and wild species of coastal domains. Consequently, cultured and wild species as well as production in cultured farm is surprisingly decreasing which leading to the total devastation of fishery industry along the coastal zone due to coastal water pollution and loss of ecosystem stability by biodiversity loss.

Author(s): Jatindra Nath Bhakta, Le Thanh Son, Yukihiro Munekage

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