The arid climate of Pakistan makes it less favorable for amphibian fauna to thrive. Anura, the only order of amphibian fauna, prevails here with 21 species falling in 4 families (Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Dicroglossidae) and 12 genera. Himalayan highlands houses most of the anuran species contrary to central and eastern areas experiencing low populations. Conservation status of most frogs and toads of Pakistan is of least concern as are not posed to serious threats but some species including Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus are confronting habitat loss, urbanization, fertilizer and pesticide exposure. Lowering pesticide application, reinstating amphibian habitat and appropriate legislation for amphibian conservation are strongly recommended to minimize the decline of anuran species in Pakistan.
Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Mubashar Hussain, Iqra Azam, Waheed Iqbal, Umar Ashiq