Bioremediation is the most promising and cost effective technology widely used now a days to clean up both soils and wastewaters containing organic or inorganic contaminants. Discharge of chromium containing wastes has led to destruction of many agricultural lands and water bodies. Utilization of chromium (Cr) reducing microbes and their products has enhanced the efficiency of the process of detoxification of Cr (VI) to Cr (III). This research article focuses mainly on the current technologies prevalent for remediation like natural attenuation, anaerobic packed bed bioreactors (using live cells, Cr (VI) reductase or their byproducts). A chromium resistant bacterial strain KKF was isolated from chromium contaminated soil. On the basis of different morphological and biochemical characteristics the strain KKF was identified as Vogococcus fluvialis. Hexavalent chromium resistance of the strain showed that it could tolerate very high concentration of K2CrO4 in nutrient agar medium. A self made anaerobic packed bed bioreactor has shown good efficiency to reduce chromate from industrial effluent. The bacterial isolate KKF can be exploited for bioremediation of chromate containing wastes, since it seems to have potential to reduce the toxic hexavalent form of chromium to its non-toxic form.
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