Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Tehran University, Iran;
Received: Febraury 25, 2016; Accepted: April 13, 2016; Published: April 19, 2016
Citation: Taheri F, Arjmandnia AA, Afrouz GA, The Effectiveness of Training Programs for Children's Low-paced Parents on Family Functioning. Electronic J Biol, 12:2
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness parenting methods training on family function in parents having children with intellectual disability. In this study, the pretest - posttest control group was used. The study population consisted of all parents of students studying in special schools in Semnan city. 30 parents having children with intellectual disability from special schools were selected by purposeful sampling. The parents were randomly divided into two groups of 15 (test and control). Experimental group participated in positive parenting program in 8 sessions (2 hours a week, each session). The control group was given no training. In this research was used measure of family functioning (FAD) and a scale relationship parent - child of Pianta (CPRS). Data by using multivariate analysis of covariance and using SPSS software were analyzed. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the experimental and control groups on measures of family functioning and interaction of parent - child significantly differ. Also, training on family functioning and parenting practices, parent interactions - the child has a significant positive effect.
Parenting practices; Family functioning; Parent-child interaction; Child slow-paced.
Undoubtedly, family as sacred institution and unmatched is the most important and most orphanages and schools are individual and society is one of the major educational institutions. Therefore, any talk of expression and thought about training people, especially children with special needs, regardless of the vital role of family is considered inappropriate speech and thought . Parents are usually very critical tasks of parenting as one of their own but very few parents can prepare for this important task or training . Disabled children are born in family when part of family and the family will be involved in fate of people.
Children with disabilities are less powerful family that education and training can be source of true happiness of their families and the reverse can also be true that people with disabilities with training methods undesirable and unnecessary prejudice inappropriate and compassion to lead side that burden is family, especially the father and mother.
Children with disabilities in families as part of family needs and fits their circumstances are reasonable behavior . Since family as an interactive system of interdependent as to individual members interact with each other . Families of children with special needs due to their slow-paced often face many challenges and generally to organize their family environment and to obtain resources that meet the needs of their children, they are doing efforts . The negative effects of having a child with mental retardation caused tension in the family especially the parents . Because parents are the first people that are directly communicate with child's feelings of guilt, frustration and deprivation due to lack of normal children can cause isolation and lack of interest in relation to environment and also lower self-esteem and feelings of inferiority and worthlessness and sadness in them that all these can affect their parenting style.
In general, early child development special need most especially their life cycle. In this period progression and worsening of special needs and also restrictions, reduction and loss of opportunities are two important events. In the absence of appropriate interventions gradually causes more disability analysis of ability and force person . That's why parental awareness of educational methods of parents lingering effects on behavior, performance, expectations and personality is very important in future .
Because if parents deal with children with behavioral problems their children do not know correct way to deal with inappropriate strategies that these choices in turn increases problems of children. The slow-paced issues that parents and children experience lack of capacity management, inability to communicate effectively with children and others (corporal punishment, considerably more than others and their isolation and child), lack of mechanisms problem solving in dealing with problems .
The poor family interactions, including parenting unstable and based on punishment, parenting attitudes of rejection or cold, hard rules and unstable, inadequate parental supervision, insecure attachment and lack of positive communication with children as predictors of risk considered  and generally put children at risk of aggressive behavior .
Other factors that affect mental retardation placed, changes in family structure and interactions, families with children is slow-paced, slow-paced presence of children in the family is threatened borders. The threat of special needs children and non-ordinary attention and energy devoted to family. The time and energy that the husband and wife should devote to his other children, slow-paced devoted to children and parents through the boundaries of sub-groups and sub fragile brother and sister also threatened. Parents devote a slow-paced child, other children and marital problems ignored and the alarm for the family. So it is necessary to reorganize couple relationships and to accept new responsibilities and exposure to new structures to prepare after the birth of child with special needs. Obviously, reorganization of life and marital relations skills and knowledge specific to the needs of families with children with special needs without them may be vulnerable .
In addition to the problems those slow-paced children's personal, social and learning issues as education for parents on how they make that out of these programs and interventions should be done consistently. Thus, according to family education, family counseling, rehabilitation, family, health and family situation of children with special needs in family has always been exceptional as prevention strategies are introduced. At present, the role of the family in the education and treatment of children exceptional, unparalleled and unique role and familybased intervention programs, special place to be allocated. So educate families, especially families with children with special needs .
Based on the studies serve the parents first priority, information and training . They want professionals to help them to improve their skills to be able to manage difficult situations . One of the types of interventions that can step in this direction is teaching parents. Many parents share increase positive interactions between parents and children and reduce destructive behaviors. Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study. Quality of life of families with disabled children improves and increase knowledge of educational principles, satisfaction, and well-being of them .
Because of its unique method of teaching parents treatment has attracted attention of others and complementary aspect of psychotherapy interventions, in which parents and other caregivers of children with behavioral problems coping techniques taught at home . Another advantage of parent training approach over other methods is that different aspects of performance of the parental and family influences. Research suggests that this type of treatment, parents reduce stress and increase their self-esteem .
In parents, whole family is stressed and its impact on children and parents worry about their children's causes, treatment and prognosis, training sessions will be discussed and this information will help to convince parents that their child's unusual behavior that sometimes head is not intentional. If parents know these behaviors unintentional so get less upset and angry and fewer will resort to punitive methods .
This increasing in self-efficacy and self-sufficiency goals therapeutic levels of parents to control children's behavior and by training parents to enhance child development and sense of social competence and self-control is possible. The benefit of this program is to reduce disruptive behavior in children and improve relations with child's parents and other family members . In new information, parents find better understanding of problems of children and child behavior management skills, parents can increase self-efficacy.
Children and parenting education more efficient ways parents can help personal compatibility  and impact of training on the ability of parents to reduce children's behavioral problems . The effectiveness of parent education programs in research Weinberg , Kazdin , Oliver et al. , Huver et al. , Kraus et al.  investigated and found these programs by substantially removed. The results show that management training to parents in reducing parental stress behaviors and reduce hurt and also comorbid disorders are effective.
Researchers like Barkely et al., Ghanizadeh and Shahrivar , Sonuga-Barke et al. , Sonna , Oliver and colleagues  found that parent training can improve behavior of parents in dealing with children, reduce aggression and increase self-confidence affect children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs for children's lowpaced parents on family functioning in Semnan city.
This research is quasi-experimental study with experimental group.
2.1 Staticall population
The population of the study, all parents of students studying in special schools, primary school slowpaced in 2013-2014 academic years in Semnan.
2.2 Sampling and sampling method
The sample consists of 30 pairs of parents, which is slow-paced with samples available from the community are selected and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups will be replaced.
• Definitive diagnosis of slow-paced child
• Parents of elementary school education.
• Parents did not get divorced.
• Attend parent meetings is voluntary and definite promise from parents to cooperate and participate in training sessions 8 sessions of 90 minutes each week parenting practices meeting.
Exclusion criteria of the study:
• Family disputes and conflicts acute marriage between couples
• Failure to attend more than one session
• Lack of homework per week over a meeting
Demographic questionnaires for parents and children: The questionnaire was prepared to obtain demographic information such as age, degree of mental disability, gender, parent, parent age, parental employment and family income.
Family Function Questionnaire (FAD-I): Family Function Assessment Questionnaire strategy based on systems theory to describe organizational characteristics and family structure model is designed by McMaster. This model specific dimensions and public dimension to working families and for families distinguish between efficient and inefficient patterns of communication between family members is measured. The scale factors include patterns, problem solving and emotion is expressed. This questionnaire is common in psychopathology and has high correlation with SCL90. This questionnaire scored 0 to 4. Validity of questionnaire is 0.97 for female and 0.98 for male.
Cranach's alpha coefficients were calculated Cranach's alpha coefficients of the factor structure of the 0.93 and credit instruments of roles solve problems and express their emotions in 0.001 calculated 0.92, 0.75 and which are significant.
The parent-child relationship scale: This scale was developed by Pianta for the first time in 1994 and contains 33 articles which measure perception of parents about their relationship with the child. Tahmasian translated questionnaire in 2007 and reported its content validity. The scale includes areas of conflict (Article 17), proximity (10 articles), affiliation (6 months), and the overall positive interface (the sum of all areas). Each respectively with Cranach's alpha coefficient 0.84, 0.69, 0.46, 0.80 was good. Scale the relationship between parent-child selfreport questionnaires and scoring on a 5 point Likert scale (5-for certainly true and certainly does not apply 1 score). The investment style based on the scores baseline (pre-test) and test significance of this difference can be done. This is measure of relationship between parents - Children of all ages have been used.
In order to analyze data by SPSS-19 with regard to the questions contained in the charts and descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) would be used for analysis.
The content of the training: A variety of training programs Parents Positive Parenting Program (Triple p), which is application-oriented multi-level prevention and family support strategy. Sanders and colleagues  created at University of Queensland in Brisbane this program in Australia. It provides self-regulatory model is to empower parents and encourage responsible parenting . The program uses principles of parent-child bond and to strengthen and to enhance knowledge and confidence to parents has created significant reduction in behavioral problems in children and significant improvement in the style of parenting . Parents also decrease functional deficits in the implementation of discipline, reduce parental distress, stress, anger and conflict in the upbringing of children and has achieved remarkable success. The program consists of 8 sessions of 4 sessions of 2 hours and 3 or 4 sessions of 15 to 30 minute telephone follow-up is formed, the session could be telephone meeting or session .
Covariance analysis was used to evaluate data normality and covariance, and homogeneity of pretest scores between the two groups. In order to examine the normality data Shapiro Wilk test was used. Levine test was used for evaluation of homogeneity of variance within groups. According to data in Table 1 and 2, findings were not significant (α=0.05).Assumptions were inferred about normality and homogeneity of data covariance and regression slope, and using of covariance was permitted for evaluation of assumptions with homogeneity of covariance (Tables 1 and 2).
|The parent - child relationship||Experimental||0.919||15||0.239|
Table 1. The normal distribution of data variables by using Shapiro Wilk test.
|The relationship parent - child||0.635||1||28||0.432|
Table 2. Levine test results for homogeneity of variance within the group of participants (n=40).
Levin was used to evaluate the homogeneity of variance within groups. Assumption of homogeneity of variance test scores in both groups were evaluated using Levene and given that the F value of Levin at α=0.05 was not significant, so the assumption of homogeneity of variance and regression slope of data is established (Table 3).
|Sources of changes||Sum of square||Df||Mean of square||F||Sig.|
|Pre-test effect||Family functioning||3.098||1||3.098||1.239||0.272|
|The relationship parent - child||1.965||1||1.965||0.873||0.355|
|Experimental groups||Family functioning||0.003||1||0.003||0.001||0.977|
|The relationship parent - child||14.742||1||14.742||3.844||0.056|
|Group and pre-test interaction||Family functioning||2.601||1||1.301||0.362||0.698|
|The relationship parent - child||6.822||1||3.411||1.309||0.280|
Table 3. Default test of homogeneity of regression coefficients.
Table 3 showed homogeneity test results of regression coefficients are statistically tested samples. F value is calculated as the interaction and the test is not significant at 0.05 (P≤0.05), so data support hypothesis of homogeneity of regression slopes and this hypothesis is accepted and can be implemented analysis of covariance. The relationship between pre-test and post-test ratio is higher than 0.6, it can be used to analyze research data analysis of covariance (Tables 4 and 5).
|The relationship of father - child||The relationship of mother - child|
|The relationship parent - child||0.802**|
Table 4. Pre-test and post-test correlation coefficients variables research.
|Test||Amount||F||Hypothesis df||Error df||Sig.||Eta|
|Pilaei effect||0.746||9.234 a||7||22||0.001||0.746|
|Lambda Wilks||0.254||9.234 a||7||22||0.001||0.746|
|Hotelling effect||2.938||9.234 a||7||22||0.003||0.746|
|The root of error||9.234||9.234 a||7||22||0.001||0.746|
Table 5. Test results meaningful multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA) in the two groups.
Results 5 shows significant levels of usability test all of multivariate covariance (MANCOVA). These results show that in groups of at least one of dependent variables there are significant differences. Chi Eta shows difference between the two groups was significant with respect to the dependent variables in total and this difference is 74.6 percent. The 74.6% of variance of difference between the two groups is due to the interaction of the dependent variables (Table 6).
Sources of changes
|Sum of squares||Df||Mean of square||F||Sig.||Eta|
|effect of Group||Problem Solving||86.700||1||86.700||8.621||0.007||0.235|
Table 6. Summarizes the results of multivariate analysis of variance about the effect of parenting style training program on family function slow-paced students.
According to the data of Table 6; degrees of freedom, F (1, 27) at α=0.05 is significant. Therefore it can be concluded that the training program parenting style on family functioning students with slow-paced affect the amount of room that impact of training program parenting style on family function pupils slow step in scale of problem-solving 23.5 %, level of communication 26.7 %, below scale of the 37.9 %, level of responsiveness emotional 18%, the level of emotional attachment 2.23 %, overall performance and public 19.02% and total score variable family functioning 25.2%. Given that the average scores of the experimental group compared with control group at post-test shows increased research hypothesis is confirmed with 95% certainty also according to the data in Table 6; F value of the degrees of freedom (27 and 1) in the component behavior (0.182) at α=0.05 is not significant. Therefore, we can conclude that parenting style training program on family functioning students on the following scale does not affect slowpaced so hypothesis will be rejected with 95% confidence.
Parent education programs, effective strategies to reduce conflict and tension within families and improve children's behavior . Most of these programs to identify patterns of family conflict and necessary skills to parents and children to reduce conflicts and improve the interaction between members . Several studies have shown the effectiveness of these programs follow an approach that includes communication skills, problem-solving and dialogue in the family, the best and most consistent results in solving family conflicts . Purpose of this research was to improve family functioning and interaction of parent - child based on the literature and concepts of psychology slow-paced efforts of parenting education program for parents to approach a slow-paced and assess its effectiveness in family functioning and parent-child interactions.
These findings are consistent with results of Whittingham et al. , Sadeghi and colleagues , Alizadeh , Shokohi Yekta  that training parents on various aspects of family functioning and parental influences. In explaining research findings can be stated that education in any field can have positive impact on people. That's why educating parents is very important slow-paced. The slow-paced children's undesirable effects on family structure and family function and makes the family under stress of physical, psychological, social and economical to extent that natural process is disturbed, leading to breakdown of family system .
Limitations of the study include:
• This study is limited to elementary school students in a slow-paced.
• Due to limited sample, method and other factors should be generalized with caution.
• Due to time constraints, did not provide an opportunity for follow-up test.
It is suggested that research more widely and with population of more accomplished- future research on other children with special needs and impact of other possible factors examined. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs with different patterns of family-centered, school-centered design, and time taken to track results. It also offered training sessions for parents on parenting practices through workshops to be held and parent education programs and meet some local cultural considerations in this study is not highlighted and deserves to be emphasized in future studies.