Published Date: 2016-10-07 Hanieh Mehdizadeh Hanjani, Majid Dastres, Hamid Reza Mirshekari, Ali Zaman Moniri
Hanieh Mehdizadeh Hanjani, Majid Dastres, Hamid Reza Mirshekari, Ali Zaman Moniri
Received Date: June 09, 2016; Accepted Date: July 12, 2016; Published Date: July 19, 2016
Citation: Hanjani HM, Dastres M, Mirshekari HR, et al. Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Well-Being in Staffs of Addiction Treatment Centers. Electronic J Biol, 12:4
This study was aimed to investigate relationship between self-efficacy and well-being in staffs of addiction treatment centers in Tehran city. The study population included all staffs of addiction treatment centers in Tehran city that 130 people were selected by cluster random sampling. The research instruments used were Ryff's scales of psychological wellbeing and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire that data was analyzed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Self-efficacy has significant relationship with growth and development, autonomy and meaningful connections while relationship between self-satisfaction, spirituality and joy was not significant. The ability to find meaning and purpose in life and pursue their orientation all of which are in contrast to happiness, well-being are important aspects that can have significant effect on self-efficacy.
Psychological well-being; Self-efficacy; Addiction treatment centers.
Unlike traditional psychology focus on pathology and diseases in psychology, focus and more attention is on health and positivism in life. Among the topics considered in this new approach to psychological well-being can be pointed out .
Well-being is a dynamic concept that includes subjective, social, and psychological dimensions as well as health-related behaviors. This is how person's well-being requires evaluating and predicting consequences life events and positive feeling and satisfaction to themselves and others in different areas of public life, including family and employment . On the other hand, in this century, psychological pressure and stress is one of the most important areas of research in different fields and their effects on human life is one of the most extensive research areas in modern times and actions .
Achieving well-being has been the concern of philosophers since Aristotle, and is, in many respects the essence of human existence. In recent years, well-being has moved from realm of philosophy to that of science. There has been growing body of research into what contributes to the quality of people’s experiences of their lives. This has enabled a new understanding of the factors that both influence and constitute well-being. Because of this dynamic nature, high levels of well-being mean that we are more able to respond to difficult circumstances, to innovate and constructively engage with other people and the world around us. As well as representing a highly effective way of bringing about good outcomes in many different areas our lives, there is also a strong case for regarding well-being as an ultimate goal of human endeavor .
Stress, anxiety and work against one of the permanent everyday life. All of us may be encountered at any moment with stressful situations. These include distress, and stress of everyday life and major events of each varies from person to person. Individual assessment of stress and how to deal and cope with is critical and important and it is possible for some stressful events while others are favorable. Usually when stress will be harmful to man than to treat life threatening and yet it does not have resources to deal with it .
Studies have shown that use of effective coping strategies have important role in reducing stress on people. Practices or strategies that person uses to deal with stressful situations play key role in physical and mental health. Alarmed that person feels affiliated with facilities at its disposal and this is information relating to environment, life experiences and personal characteristics. Transformation in human life requires compliance with conditions, but it is pleasant or unpleasant change in methods of coping with life changes and stressors are very different from type of deal with individuals' mental health. Individual must have sense of well-being or satisfaction .
Sense of well-being includes sense of coherence and continuity in life, emotional balance and overall satisfaction with life. On the other hand, according to previous studies with greater optimism physical and psychological adjustment to stressful life events and life satisfaction is higher levels of performance.
In meantime, teachers and young people as main stratum of society that continually exposed to tension and stress or psychological problems of educational, familial, social and economic are particular interest to researchers. It is clear that consequences of stress on social and occupational functioning, personal satisfaction and most importantly, mental health affects .
Reef, found that researchers on criteria such as selfacceptance, environmental mastery and positive relations with others, purpose in life, personal growth and independence of opinion and therefore its model accordingly presented six components of well-being. His theory is currently used as basis for mental wellbeing .
On the other hand an influence on others and reasons for psychological impact are also familiar. In many environments and educational opportunities and job stress to be kept on individual abilities and psychological aspects and certainly potential for career success and next life people are important, but it should be noted that this capability alone cannot successfully operating for well-being and selfefficacy, but to what person needs to be noted as important factors in success .
People with same capabilities, different in terms of efficacy or choose jobs due to different efficacy employ different abilities and therefore to pleas in educational opportunities or employment respond differently .
The concept of self-efficacy is belief in ability to have psychological constructs structural element, emotional and behavior. According to Bandura's theory of perceived self-efficacy beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and perform series of tasks necessary to achieve goals .
People's beliefs about their efficacy can be developed by four main sources of influence. The most effective way of creating a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences. Successes build a robust belief in one's personal efficacy. Failures undermine it, especially if failures occur before a sense of efficacy is firmly established.
If people experience only easy successes they come to expect quick results and are easily discouraged by failure. A resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through perseverant effort. Some setbacks and difficulties in human pursuits serve a useful purpose in teaching that success usually requires sustained effort. After people become convinced they have what it takes to succeed, they persevere in the face of adversity and quickly rebound from setbacks. By sticking it out through tough times, they emerge stronger from adversity .
The second way of creating and strengthening selfbeliefs of efficacy is through the vicarious experiences provided by social models. Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities to master comparable activities required to succeed. By the same token, observing others' fail despite high effort lowers observers' judgments of their own efficacy and undermines their efforts. The impact of modeling on perceived self-efficacy is strongly influenced by perceived similarity to the models. The greater the assumed similarity the more persuasive is the models' successes and failures. If people see the models as very different from themselves their perceived self-efficacy is not much influenced by the models' behavior and the results its produces.
Modeling influences do more than provide a social standard against which to judge one's own capabilities. People seek proficient models who possess the competencies to which they aspire. Through their behavior and expressed ways of thinking, competent models transmit knowledge and teach observers effective skills and strategies for managing environmental demands. Acquisition of better means raises perceived self-efficacy .
Social persuasion is a third way of strengthening people's beliefs that they have what it takes to succeed. People who are persuaded verbally that they possess the capabilities to master given activities are likely to mobilize greater effort and sustain it than if they harbor self-doubts and dwell on personal deficiencies when problems arise. To the extent that persuasive boosts in perceived selfefficacy lead people to try hard enough to succeed, they promote development of skills and a sense of personal efficacy.
It is more difficult to instill high beliefs of personal efficacy by social persuasion alone than to undermine it. Unrealistic boosts in efficacy are quickly disconfirmed by disappointing results of one's efforts. But people who have been persuaded that they lack capabilities tend to avoid challenging activities that cultivate potentialities and give up quickly in the face of difficulties. By constricting activities and undermining motivation, disbelief in one's capabilities creates its own behavioral validation.
Successful efficacy builders do more than convey positive appraisals. In addition to raising people's beliefs in their capabilities, they structure situations for them in ways that bring success and avoid placing people in situations prematurely where they are likely to fail often. They measure success in terms of selfimprovement rather than by triumphs over others .
People also rely partly on their somatic and emotional states in judging their capabilities. They interpret their stress reactions and tension as signs of vulnerability to poor performance. In activities involving strength and stamina, people judge their fatigue, aches and pains as signs of physical debility. Mood also affects people's judgments of their personal efficacy. Positive mood enhances perceived self-efficacy, despondent mood diminishes it. The fourth way of modifying self-beliefs of efficacy is to reduce people's stress reactions and alter their negative emotional proclivities and is interpretations of their physical states.
It is not the sheer intensity of emotional and physical reactions that is important but rather how they are perceived and interpreted. People who have a high sense of efficacy are likely to view their state of affective arousal as an energizing facilitator of performance, whereas those who are beset by self- doubts regard their arousal as a debilitated. Physiological indicators of efficacy play an especially influential role in health functioning and in athletic and other physical activities .
Four main factors contribute to efficacy person, including training experiences, model making, sensorial and emotional states are compelling social . Since one of goals of any organization is promoting positive feelings and satisfaction of individuals in various spheres of public life. On the other hand issue of stress has been in present century one of the most important fields of research in sciences and their effects on lives of employees of the most extensive areas of research in contemporary.
According to above, this study was aimed to investigate relationship between self-efficacy and well-being in staffs of addiction treatment centers.
This research is descriptive-correlation.
2.1 Statistical population, sampling
The study population included all staffs of addiction treatment centers in Tehran city that 130 people were selected by cluster random sampling. 100 men (70%) and 30 women (30%) were selected of them 12% were single and 88% married.
Ryff's scales of psychological well-being
The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being is a theoretically grounded instrument that specifically focuses on measuring multiple facets of psychological well-being. The Ryff inventory consists of either 84 questions (long form) or 54 questions (medium form). There is also short form, but it is statistically unreliable and therefore should not be used for assessment. Both the long and medium forms consist of a series of statements reflecting the six areas of psychological well-being: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Respondents rate statements on a scale of 1 to 6, with 1 indicating strong disagreement and 6 indicating strong agreement that in this study Ryff's scale of psychological well- being contains 84 questions and 6 scales which any scale has 14 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the study Shokri et al.  for each of the measures of psychological well-being self-acceptance - dominated environments - positive relations with others, purpose of life, personal growth and independence, 74%, 75%, 78%, 77%, 73% and 60%, respectively. The validity of the questionnaire is 71%. In this study, validity of the questionnaire is obtained 78%.
Shokri et al. have shown by using factor validity of questionnaire to measure mental performance structures in Iran .
Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: This questionnaire has been translated into Persian in Iran by Nezami et al. and reliability of this questionnaire was measured by Rajabi .
The questionnaire contains 10 questions that are responsive based on a Likert scale of 5 degrees to respond the lowest score first highest score for each question 5. The lowest score on this questionnaire 10 and the highest score of 50 is the reliability of this questionnaire in research of Rajabi was measured 82% in University of Ahvaz.
The findings in field of validity of statements of its objective because of short detection Persian edition can be used in clinical research athletics and for ability to use ten-point scale sample profile was obtained coefficient was 85%. In this study, validity of questionnaire is obtained 73%.
Analysis of data was performed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
Sign of one star and two stars respectively mean existence of significant relationship between selfefficacy and other factors at 5% and 1%.
Self-efficacy has significant relationship with growth and development, autonomy and meaningful connections while relationship between self-satisfaction, spirituality and joy was not significant (Table 1).
As correlation analysis mentioned as ANOVA, sufficient evidence was for linear relationship between satisfaction, growth and development, self-efficacy while such linear relationship was not observed between spirituality, joy with self-efficacy.
This study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and well-being of staffs of addiction treatment centers in Tehran city that as seen in Table 1 that there is significant relationship between selfgrowth and development, autonomy and positive relationships with others.
|Communication||autonomy||Growth and development||Joy||Spirituality||Satisfaction|
Table 1. Pearson correlation coefficient between the variables psychological well-being, self-efficacy.
As Table 2 showed relationship between spirituality and happiness efficacy was not significant. These results are consistent with study of Yousefi . He studied automatic thoughts and well-being in disabled veterans in Qom. The most negative relationships between automatic thoughts and well-being were explained by feelings of security and safety, health standards and living conditions.
|Variable of psychological well-being||R||R2||Adjusted R|
|Growth and development||0.293||0.098||0.088|
Table 2. The correlation, determination and adjusted coefficient.
In explaining these findings it can be concluded that the ability to find meaning and orientation in life and pursue their goals all of which are in contrast to happiness, well-being are important aspects. Education and gain new abilities necessary to deal with situation is difficult, because pursuant to this agreement person makes their own inner forces seek and acquire new capabilities. When person is under stress, talents repeatedly "are discovered and show their power change requirement.
Human self-actualization through challenges and conditions represents human psychic ability to cope with problems, endure tragedies and returned to normal after leaving behind development of after passing through obstacle.
The cautious about generalizing the results to statistical community to consider because this research has been done only in staffs of addiction treatment centers. In the end, it is recommended that appropriate training workshops can be used to improve well-being.