Received date: July 20, 2016; Accepted date: August 03, 2016; Published date: August 10, 2016
Citation: Sepehrikia A, Shirazi A, Sargazi M. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Employees among Private Banks in Zahedan. Electronic J Biol, 12:4
The present study aimed to investigate relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviors employees among private banks in Zahedan. To that end all employees of Zahedan private banks were evaluated in terms of statistical population. This study is descriptive - correlational. Intelligence Questionnaire which contains 28 questions and Podsakoff's Organizational Citizenship Behaviors that consists of 20 questions were used to measure basic concepts of research. The questionnaire reliability Cronbach's alpha for two variables 0.88 and 0.81 respectively and entire questionnaire 0.86. The validity of test by doing interviews and getting opinions of experts and reforms were calculated. The final findings of study indicate significant and positive relationship between emotional intelligence and its components (including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship management) and organizational citizenship behavior was studied in private banks.
Organizational citizenship behaviors; Emotional Intelligence private banks; Zahedan.
In today's complex economic and competitive market, ability to attract or retain customers and increase customer loyalty as critical factor for many organizations has been proposed . Office employees during their working time because they are associated with high rate of customer visit and this issue of appropriate behavior on job build confidence and provide customer satisfaction and having realistic behavior of quality and help to get rid of heavy pressure from demands of work. In this connection, suitable employees interact with each other and having healthy relationship with clients is issue that in mind and corporate profits, and productivity will follow .
Therefore, banks are constantly searching for new ways to maximize their performance and efforts of members and to compete on world stage, satisfying needs and expectations of their customers and to adapt to changing nature of jobs, employees tend to choose beyond role specified in the original job description act .
In this connection, and in organization and management topics, personal behaviors and voluntarily undertaken directly by formal reward system is not designed as "Organizational citizenship behaviors" which improve effectiveness and increase performance of employees with this definition of man as citizen is expected to exceed requirements of its role and its activities beyond official duties in service of organizational goals .
The incidence of such behavior in organization is dependent on internal and external factors. Identify internal variables due to record less attention and for greater stability and use its influence as well as to strengthen policy and institutional actions are very important. However, one of the most important internal variables that can directly and indirectly affect such behavior is "emotional intelligence" in staff .
As far as results of recent studies have shown features and capabilities in field organizational citizenship behaviors of employees require superior intelligence and cognitive intelligence is beyond .
In fact, people with high emotional intelligence level to regulate their emotions and others in order to create positive interactions skilled management act. Therefore, higher Organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance will be higher . It was determined that underlying trends in second half of 20th century transition to service-oriented economy leads the industry [7,8].
Banks in 21st century took new phase of their activities. The stage where increasing competition has led firms, the competition to attract new customers is increasing every day. So that cost of attracting new customer is roughly equal seven times cost of retaining an existing customer. The firms have been thought to maintain its current customers so that today attracts new customers are harder than retaining existing customers.
Private Banks have been aware of this important issue that must be able to successfully convince customers to better service their own and in terms of the current crisis in the global economy, gaining the trust of customers regarded the most vital element for private banks because banks will ensure survival.
In banking relationship with sheer volume of their human resources, to continue social and economic life has to develop their human resources to priority activities. The emergence of private banks in Iran and Iran's eventual membership in the World Trade Organization was importance of the issue. Association between branches of private banks with different strata of society and hence is expected to develop employee competencies private banks have influence on quality of services . The results indicated that proper functioning and strengthening of its employees requires voluntary spirit of loyalty, friendship, respect and reverence for one of these new concepts, relevant to development and spread of such behaviors role "organizational citizenship behaviors" has received attention of researchers and managers as effective factor in organization .
Given proven role of emotional intelligence in organizations today as well as lack of research on its impact on organizational citizenship behavior and importance that should be given to this issue in Iran research was essential to be done in this area. For this reason the present study aimed to investigate relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviors employees among private banks in Zahedan.
This study, in terms of purpose is practical and method of research is descriptive and correlational.
2.1 The statistical population
The sample comprised all employees of private banks in Zahedan city.
2.2 Sample and sampling
The statistical sample of this research was statistical population. Sampling is done for whole population. That questionnaires were distributed and collected among all of employees of private banks in Zahedan.
Questionnaire on Emotional Intelligence: For this, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire of Bradbury & Greaves was used which contains 28 questions and was four dimensions :
1. After conscious (questions 1 to 5); 2. After self-management (questions 6 to 14); 3. Social awareness (questions 15 and 21); 4. After relationship management (questions 22 and 28). To check this five-item Likert scale variables (never=1 to always=5) were used.
Organizational citizenship behaviors questionnaire: Podsakoff's Organizational Citizenship Behaviors was used to assess these variables which contains 20 questions and was five dimensions: 1. Aspects of altruism (questions 29 to 32); 2. Conscience work (questions 33 to 36); 3. Aspects of (questions 37 to 40); 4. Aspects of virtue of citizenship (questions 41 to 44); and 5. respect and reverence (questions 45 and 48) to check these variables as well as the Likert scale of five options (never=1 to always=5) were used.
To determine the validity by interviews and opinions of experts, necessary revisions were done and thus ensure that questionnaire measure the same trait.
In this study, Cronbach's alpha was used to determine reliability of the test. The method for calculating the internal consistency of the instrument that is used to measure different attributes.
For the purpose of research, inferential statistics (such as Pearson correlation test bivariate regression) with the software SPSS was used.
To test this hypothesis the Pearson correlation coefficient between these two variables, the results showed that there is significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01); accordingly, reject null hypothesis and research hypothesis was accepted (Table 1).
|Independent variable||Dependent variable||N||M||SD||r||Df||P|
|Emotional Intelligence||Organizational citizenship behavior||274||4.96||0.37||0.46**||272||0.001|
Table 1: Results of Pearson correlation between emotional intelligence and citizenship behavior.
Then, two-variable regression (Inter method) was used to determine predictive power of emotional intelligence (predictor variables) and create Organizational citizenship behaviors (criterion variables). Results showed that emotional intelligence, about 21% of variance explains in Organizational citizenship behaviors (Table 2).
|Independent variable||R2||Adjusted R2||A||beta||B||F||P|
Table 2: Bivariate regression results for emotional intelligenceand organizational citizenship behavior.
Also, according to table and according to regression formula Ãâ¦ÃÂ¶=a+bx can be used to communicate emotional intelligence and Organizational citizenship behaviors, regression equation defined. In this table the letter a, the constant in regression equation, and b, the slope coefficient in order to predict the criterion variable (dependent) variable predicted by independent. Accordingly, regression Equation 1 is as follows:
Y = a + bx → X 0.42 + 2.26 Y
Equation 1. Regression relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior.
In commentary, regression equation based on the equation (if emotional intelligence, entered regression model, findings, implies that for every one unit increase in variable, as much as 0.460 positive change would appear in organizational citizenship behavior.
It was concluded from research's findings that private banks in Zahedan in terms of organizational citizenship behavior are relatively well (0.37 ± 3.96). The relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior is significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.05, r=0.41).
Among four dimensions of emotional intelligence, all of them were associated with organizational citizenship behavior. Of these dimensions, only two after the "self-management and relationship management" explain about 27% of variance in organizational citizenship behavior at level of α=0.01. In total emotional intelligence and its dimensions can be as effective factor in determining organizational citizenship behaviors.
The results showed that there is significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviors among employees of private banks in Zahedan (r=0.46). This finding is consistent with findings of many researchers . Its obtained in this study can be considered acceptable relationship and officials of private banks is good.
Also study that supplementation findings were bivariate regression though findings, 21% variance for organizational citizenship is explained by behavior showed emotional intelligence at significant level of α=0.05. This finding is consistent with is consistent results of Rod and Adebayo .
This study is limited to certain parts of country where debt of Zahedan employee's behavior of private banks cannot be fully representative of the entire country's banking employee behavior. For this reason, taking into account all private banks for sampling or classify these restrictions is eliminated. Another limitation of this study was seen in some cases when there is plenty of information on the distribution of questionnaires, psychological conditions and security for respondents, was not available to researchers and this is according to questionnaire intended to measure the mental, emotional and feelings of people in the organization, may be cut to ensure accuracy in answering.
Finally, one of the most important limitations of factors that are beyond control of the researcher and the possibility of their impact on research is not far-fetched. So that possibility of review or control does not provide for researcher like variables such as religion, culture, climate which may affect the relations in the study.
The results show relationship between emotional intelligence in organizational citizenship behaviors is therefore recommended that private banks in the process of recruitment, selection, appointment to potential applicants emotional note and later by holding workshops and courses work ethic, work psychology, to promote emotional patterns and thus create employment and work commitment, positive behavior, positive morale, and pay attention to interests of bank's employees.
Suggest generally associated with emotional intelligence is strengthened in the process of teaching emotional intelligence skills such as self-awareness, impulse control, anger management, assertiveness, responsibility and happiness be taught with the acquisition of significant changes in indicators of personal and interpersonal skills staff are created in such way that they are realistic perception of self and others are great and are empowered to control emotions and behavior. It is suggested that the study be conducted in two phases. First, test should be taken and then after strengthening workshops emotional intelligence skills and learn job skills, post-test and results of these two tests be investigated.