Received: February 25, 2016; Accepted: April 26, 2016; Published: May 01, 2016
Citation: Salehi R, Dibazar SA, Psychometric Properties of Identity Style Scale. Electronic J Biol, 12:2
This study was aimed to investigate psychometric properties of identity style scale among high school students. For this purpose 365 subjects were selected by simple random sampling and responded to identity style scale. The results of the validation and factor analysis showed normality in it. Through the general formula alpha reliability coefficient scale is 0.78. Principal components analysis shows that the questioner has six main factors. These six factors including successful identity, confused identity, premature identity, professional identity, religious identity and collective identity that determined about 45.2% of the variance.
Identity style; Reliability; Validity; Factor analysis.
Adolescences as age which look for phase identification and identity styles are known in this age by informative, norms, and confused - avoid style. On the other hand the concept of identity style is that teens look to challenges of life and philosophical thoughts Anna Freud are involved with it. Therefore, it is essential that greater recognition and identity styles developed tests that can help in this regard can be important advisors in context of treatment and help counselors and psychologists.
After Ericsson theory of psychosocial development raised their social identity, different research which examines the evolution of their identity. This research led to Marcia's views that were the first theorist of neo-Ericsson and rely on an individual's identity. According to Ericsson commitment probe is the main components of identity. He proposed four identities: the identity of the successful, confused identities, identity late, precocious identity .
Berzonsky stated as one of the representatives Marcia's complete identity theory "self-made". His theory assumptions and principles and structures that interact with the environment and the worlds and frame of reference for process analysis provides authoritative information in regard to identity. As noted, Berzonsky's has introduced his theory as social-cognitive model . So, personal identity is framework that can be used as resource for changing experiences. The change identity information and the questions can be answered and issues to life.
Berzonsky studied similarity or difference in shaping the identity which has identified three styles. Styles in problem solving or coping are mechanism. Styles of an individual refer to them in their decisionmaking process. The styles include informative, normative, confused – avoid. People with informative style, problem-oriented strategies, decisions and exploratory active high, consistent and committed to their goals and go to different experiences, their sense of integrity tend to suspend judgment throw a bright academic career goals and expect high academic performance .
People with normative style has mechanical view of the world, internal criteria, they need to organize outside tend to have information that is consistent with their values, they are closed minded, not flexible, conservative ideas and recommendations according to sources in the decisions.
People with confused – avoid style use coping strategies to avoid situations, make decisions, they use any means to achieve their goals, have low self-esteem and self-efficacy and has no later than attention . Berzonsky  believes that. People with informational style in comparison with two other methods in dealing with people and situations, new identity, tolerance and have more flexibility. They expressed their existence and respect for others' beliefs, attitudes, thoughts and feelings of others and withdrawals are equally concerned about style but they show less depression and its relationship to depression normative way. This means that people with depression normative identity style show more temporary. Normative identity style and depression compared to relational style. Based on experiences and statements of normative identity style reference group and other important people in life act automatically accept values and beliefs of others without conscious evaluation. Because it has no criteria by which to judge they have no selection and analysis of their affairs. So no authorities to judge, evaluate, analyze and decide to fail if it is decided to be a depressed and lonely.
Since that style determines the identity of an individual's belief that specific action plan can be implemented, it seems logical to assume that pessimists are more at risk than those who see themselves as able to do certain things. The present study sought to answer this question that what are psychometric properties of identity style scale.
This study is descriptive survey with practical aim.
2.1 The population and sample
The study sample includes all girls and boys of high school students in Tehran in the 19 districts of education in 2011-2012 academic years. Because the purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties identity and factor analysis is to evaluate these features will require the implementation of the community-based research methods, sample group of 400 randomly selected through multistage sampling. Of these, 35 items were excluded due to lack of cooperation from the study and therefore sample size 365 students were selected.
2.2 Identity style questionnaires (1999)
It has been made in study by Berzonsky and colleagues. This test consists of 40 items designed using five point Likert scale options. According to suggestions, good results have been achieved on psychometric properties of this scale.
The commitment scale is used to reanalyze results and is not considered as an identity style. Individuals’ responses take the form of 5-point Likert scales, which range from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (5). Berzonsky has reported the internal reliability of the informational scale to be 0.62, the normative scale to be 0.60 and the diffuse-avoidant or avoidant scale to be 0.73. In a study conducted by (White, 1998), alpha coefficients were reported to be 0.78 for the diffuse-avoidant or avoidant scale, 0.64 for the normative scale, and 0.59 for the informational scale. These coefficients are similar to the ones reported by . Jomenia reported that the alpha coefficient of her research was 0.60. In this study, the reliability of the instrument yielded a score of 0.76 using Cronbach's alpha method.
3.1 Validation of scale identity style
Internal consistency was used to verify validity of identity style. It depends on the co-ordination function which is the subject of a question to another question and calculation is based on the standard deviation obtained from the questions that reliability is Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
Coefficients was obtained by internal consistency test are an indication of amount of interference is common feature of all questions in assessment. As questions are homogenous means that they all have kind of measure of the ability or personality . In this section, results of validating the identity style scale, Cronbach's alpha is presented based on the overall formula. Questions statistical parameters include mean (degree of difficulty), standard deviation of any question, correlation of each question with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire and removal of any items shown in Table 1.
|N||Correlation with test||SD||Mean||Item||Alpha If delete questions||Correlation with test||SD||Mean||Item|
Table 1. The mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient alpha coefficient for each question and the total score and remove any questions about the identity of a 40-item style.
Correlated with total scores for each question showed that some of questions have negative correlation with total scale score so by reversing the 11 questions (Questions 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 24, 27 and 36) determine reliability of entire set of 40 questions was 0.78. After negative results of reliability question is presented in Table 1. As can see, the questions 37 (when I have a big decision to make love as much information as possible about my business) and 22 (set of strong beliefs when deciding who would use them) to 0.53 and 0.51respectively with the highest correlation coefficients and questions 31 (of problems that I thought they would stay away) and 29 (as far as possible problems I do not think) and coefficient was 0.006 with 0.018 lowest correlation with total score of questionnaire obtained reliability coefficient indicates scale of internal consistency is desirable and can be confident that results of factor analysis.
3.2 Validation of the scale identity style
The most important question that needs to be done about every type of assay is that it is permissible method to what extent? This means that tool to measure something that is made to measure it. When series of questions to assess behavior is an example of the meaning of this collection is not determined just by naming it. But only by studying its nature and its validity will be determined. The purpose of reliability, suitability with meaningful and useful inferences certain that test score comes into action. In order to verify this deduction is necessary. Psychometric evidence gathered in the culture called validating . As more states in order validating identity of evidence of two types of narrative style scale 1) construct validity and 2) concurrent validity were collected. In this section we provide evidence of construct validity through exploratory factor analysis in throughput.
3.3 Factor analysis of the questionnaire
Factor analysis is general term for number of different but related mathematical and statistical techniques to investigate nature of relationships between variables in given category. The major factors in factor analysis determined that whether variable can be set according to number of dimensions smaller than number of variables or factors described and each dimension represents trait or characteristic .
Factor analysis of correlation matrix of variables often starts; original diameter is usually empty and uncertain. How much is based in factor analysis finds different names and thus variety of methods such as principal component analysis (PC), maximum likelihood, etc. In this study, principal component analysis is used which this method is based on number placed diagonal each of houses that in addition to share of total variance between variables specific variance and the variance of error also occurs this method is structured query variables to explain all of the variance.
It should be noted that prior to conducting the agent should be checked whether the data matrixes for conducting the appropriate agent or not that have to be observed least the assumptions:
• Nonzero correlation matrix which indicates calculates inverse matrix resulting in major mining operation is possible.
• KMO sampling adequacy index should be at least 0.6 and preferably above it. Sereni and Kieser believe that the KMO value is greater than 0.6, they could easily factor analysis . KMO size is indicator that observed correlation values with values of partial correlation can be compared. If sum of squares of partial correlation coefficients between pairs of variables compared with the sum of squares correlation coefficient is small, size of KMO will be close to one. Small amounts of KMO indicate that correlation between variables cannot even explain by other variables so use of variable factor analysis may not be related.
• Results Bartlett's test of sphericity (1950) should be statistically significant. To be useful factor model variables correlated with means it is necessary if correlation between variables is small probability of being involved in correlation. Bartlett's sphericity test is used to evaluate correlation matrix and purpose of its implementation reject the null hypothesis based on exactly same matrix (matrix with all diagonal elements of A and all non-diagonal elements is zero) in community .
• Load Factor each question in the factor matrix and rotation matrix of at least 3.0 and preferably higher than that.
• Each factor should be the least of the three questions.
• The factor must have enough validation.
The primary statistical specifications in implementation of principal components analysis (PC) measurements obtained with KMO and Bartlett's sphericity test results for correlation matrix of identity style scale implementation in the sample was shown in Table 2.
|Item||factor||Special value||variance Percentage||Density percentage||Item||factor||Special value||variance Percentage||Density percentage|
Table 2. Primary statistical indicators in the implementation of principal components analysis to set 40 style questions of identity.
As seen in Table 2 specific values are 12 percent larger than cover common variance between variables on the 63.87 for 12% of total variation explains. The last column of density majority of variance attributable to each factors before Factors it. For example density shows that the first three factors together explained 30.14% of total variance. The results of the preliminary calculation of principal components analysis shows that the number of nonzero determinant of the correlation matrix 0.0445 and thus calculate inverse correlation matrix is possible. In addition, the amount of KMO is equivalent 0.698 larger than 0.6 which signifies sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of sphericity characteristics 5116.066 and its significance level is less than 0.001. Therefore, on basis of three criteria can be concluded that the implementation of factor analysis based on the correlation matrix of the studied sample would be justified.
This style scale to determine the identity of number of factors taken into consideration is saturated three major characteristics:
Special value: Simple and objective criterion for determining the number of factors worth considering especially the question. This property is called the Kaiser Criterion states that only factor with special value higher than it should be maintained in analysis.
The proportion of variance explained by each factor: On the basis of this criterion factor that very small percentage (e.g. 1%) of variance explanation is unlikely to be a theoretical or practical significance.
Rotated graph specific values: The value of special drawing of the graph shows that Scree questions are named. This is usually big project and other factors together with gradual slope are shown. In this diagram, it is assumed that all real factors diagram of the left and right side of the factors fault . Special steep curve values for questions of identity style scale are displayed in Figure 1.
Special sloping to question value of scale of graph in Figure identity style (1) is displayed that can be: after several run multiple operating mining analysis and comparison with theoretical structure scale and foundations operating extracted comments and also taking into account the assumptions of factor analysis mentioned in above.
The results show probably six factors: first operating profit and share of the total variance is significant and distinct contribution of other factors. These results are presented in Table 3.
|Factor||Special value||Percentage of variance||Cumulative percentage|
Table 3. Equity, percentage of variance and the density, factors identity style.
Special value of each factor sum of squares of factor loadings shows how much of the total variance explanation of the questions involved. As it is considered, the first factor with amount of special value 6.291 and 15.727 percent of total variance that it is based on principal component analysis features the highest share in total variance and nothing can explain more of variance compared to the first factor. The sixth factor with 14.4% explained total variance special value 1.659 and amount that the lowest share in total variance. According to above table 45.20% of total variance explained by the six factors was extracted. The share materials set 40 question of identity style is obtained through principal component analysis is shown in Table 4.
|Item||Amount of Share||item||Amount of Share||item||Amount of Share||item||Amount of Share|
Table 4. Share of the question of identity style by performing 40 sets of principal component analysis.
As Table 4, the highest share belonged to questions 7 (I know what you want to do in the future) and 17 (now about the future do not think, until then it is still possible) equal to 0.657 and 0.615 operating times and the lowest share of 26 questions (better in times of trouble of professionals from doctors, lawyers, teachers and .... our opinion) and 35 (I like to think their problems and I solve them in their own way) that is equal to 0.253 and 0.214 have factor load. After determining number of relevant factors extracted according to amount of explained variance and scree plot to achieve simple structure with six factors was rotated. The aim of this procedure is to achieve simple structure is rarely happens that joint solution mined in initial load factor for variables is clear. Sometimes number of variables observed two or three times mean factor that makes it difficult to interpret factor model. In such cases, tilting platforms through linear transformation leads to structure variable load maximum and minimum load factor is variable in other structures. When operating in situations that are believed to be significant psychologically amount of variance explained by each factor bit of adjustment and error in way more evenly distributed between factors .
It should be noted that since matrix is not rotating platforms and again does not provide those structures, spin extracted factors and transfer them to new axis makes it even easier to discover body structure distinguish display of variable and relatively clear guidelines and interpretations is possible to achieve possible solutions . To achieve simple structure, six factors were rotated. After several experimental results turning simple structure seemed that matrix structure can be seen in Table 5. In this study simpler and clearer image rotation feature to relations between loses for simple structure of rotation of these practices is used.
|Questions||First factor||Second factor||Third factor||Fourth factor||Fifth factor||Sixth factor|
Table 5. Matrix structure of 40 questions of identity style.
The simple structure of six scale identity styles after the rotation shown in are shown Table 5.
• Questions 7, 12, 27, 15, 14, and 30 have complexity and weight to focus on two or more platforms.
• Other questions of scale without complexity because only one factor loadings are considerable.
Based on factor structure matrix together with associated set of questions that were extracted and was named as below:
The first factor: 11 questions including questions 37, 17, 2, 25, 7, 22, 10, 28, 33, 35 and 12 of these have high correlation factor that indicates successful identity.
The second factor: 8 questions, including questions 29, 13, 38, 36, 31, 27, 8, and 15 are highly correlated with this factor, which represents the relationship is confused identity.
The third factor: 7 questions, including questions 40, 24, 32, 6, 23, 39 and 26 have high correlation with this factor which represents identity is premature. The fourth factor: 5 years included questions 20, 21, 34, 14, and 30 of these have a high correlation factor indicating identity and professional.
The fifth factor: 6 questions, including questions 9, 19, 1, 11, 4, and 3 expresses solidarity with the cause of religious identity.
The sixth factor: 3 questions, including questions 18, 5, and 16 of these have high correlation factor and is an expression of collective identity.
Today, in modern psychology, self-reflection of thought associated with areas that have been mentioned by name identity. Identity as theory means that each individual state has its own system of values and goals and beliefs and is committed to it. An accurate sense of their own identity, in other words a clear theory of person. In the study of human personality and inner identity is fundamental aspect by which person is connected with past and sense of continuity and integrity of lives. In other words, the identity of one's self is concept with different titles such as sexual identity, group identity, ethnic identity .
Ericsson (1963) relatively stable sense of identity is defined by its uniqueness. This means that despite changes behavior, thoughts and feelings of individual and is always same . According to identity management approach to study differences in how people deal with processing. Location, information, decisions and conflicts of identity, three informational styles, normative and confused - avoid introduced.
In order to help counselors and psychologists in field of therapy, it is essential that operating style and identity test that can help in this area, counselors and psychologists to be identified and studied. Given the above, this study aimed to identify the psychometric properties such as reliability, validity and norm finding identity style among high school students.
The instrument used in this study is the scale of identity style by Berzonsky et al. This test consists of 40 questions designed by five-item Likert scale. The findings come after analyzing data and research, using statistical methods, to respond to questions raised in study after pointing out statistical findings discussed the results of each query. Principal components analysis was used to verify validity of scale and that scale style multi-factor authentication is saturated.
For this purpose, assumptions of factor analysis of KMO (Sampling sufficiency) and significant determinant of correlation matrix, Bartlett's sphericity characteristics were investigated; results showed performance for data analysis is justified. Finally with regard to assumptions of factor analysis, equity questions, percentage of variance by each agent and sloping graph Cattell, 6 factors were extracted from set of 40 questions. These six factors explain questions on each 45.2% of total variance. Meanwhile, the first of equity 6.291, 15.727% of total variance and its share is higher than other factors.
Since turning pro in way easier and clearer picture of relationships between feature to lose, in order to achieve simple structure and naming agent of orbits, following results were obtained: Questions 7, 12, 27, 15, 14, and 30 have complexity and weight to focus on two or more platforms. Other questions, for it is only one factors scale without complexity, significant loadings.
• The first factor with 11 items and identity correlation is successful.
• The second factor correlated with 8 questions that expresses relationship is confused identity.
• The third factor with 7 high correlations and an identity is premature.
• The fourth factor high correlation with 5 questions and express professional identity.
• The fifth factor highly correlated with 6 questions and express religious identity.
• The sixth factor with 3 question expression of solidarity and collective identity is high.
The findings based on sampling design and statistical analysis based on factor analysis and principal component analysis and management with benefit of history on scale identity style following results were obtained: The first factor is indicative of successful identity. Research literature indicates that people who are successful in life issues identity features various options considered and according to their own conditions make decisions in field of ideology beliefs assess its past to reach solution that prepares them to perform everyday activities. People with advanced identity have high exploration and commitment (Marcia, 1993). People with style, intelligence actively search for information and problem-oriented approach and focus on issues.
These people are active in development of educational goals and seriousness and perseverance are well educated. Social and educational challenges to efficiently collide and sense of responsibility towards life and emotional is independence. These people have been trained in families with strong parental educational criteria are clear and in upbringing of their children benefit of them [9,10]. From perspective of Schwartz and Kartinz  people who are successful and creativity implies the ability to create solutions for a variety of different issues. The third factor represents confused identity. This means that person did not pass probe and behavior and thoughts there is not enough commitment. The group's commitment to principles and ramparts is small compared to others. It seems that ideas are constantly tested social roles, they quickly decide to come easily dominated each role. These people seem aimless and wandering to and from any kind of awareness and trying to avoid their decisions to delay little thinking about their ideology.
This category of self-esteem is self-concept and very low commitment. They deal with issues of avoidance and maladaptive cognitive strategies and use documents. Such as expectations of external control, low self-efficacy, behavior unrelated to the task, selfhandicapping. These people are permissive parents and they are not prepared to deal with identity issues. People tend to depend on identity of each style in direction of their intellectual capacity. At same time zone, cultural factors and personal preferences involved in it .
The third factor: This means that person without an identity pass early stage of exploration of certain issues does commit identity. The more people follow others and think of others in terms of job, religion, and politics and accept. Such person of responsibility that comes with freedom of individual is afraid. This group of people have no desire to acquire new experiences and make your life less commitments are questioned. These people are often thinking in such way that their beliefs or beliefs of people to accept without questioning. The Berzonsky  in accordance with normative identity style is early identification.
Normative style to imitate recognized. People with closed minds are rigid normative style. They face off against recommendations and standards of the outside. We will deal with any attempt to change the criteria. The Capote and Adz those who are narrow and mechanical view of world are disabled. The fourth factor represents professional identity. One of things is that most teenagers are highly involved with their professional identity. Find good job with the talent personal and professional suitability.
The fifth factor is expression of religious identity. This means that reliance on one-to-one belief system or database that orientation affects people in different ways. In fact, we can say that philosophical and religious identity constitutes person's life, in other words teenager religious identity, your majesty, power and survival sees in religion (Farsi Nejad, 2004). Tips contribute to formation of religious identity included:
• For Teen philosophy is an expression of worship through content and applications.
• It should be taught science and religion together young and they understood assumed to be paired with each other.
• Religious themes; so for them to feel that they are getting religious matters in life is not only through preaching dealt with them.
• Religious beliefs and vote for coordinated, targeted, will be available to them (Lotfabadi, 2007).
The sixth factor is expression of collective identity which is ability to work with public or group so that person able to express their opinions and accept views and opinions of others and compliance to meet needs of collective life that identity of belonging, respect and security.