Received date: August 11, 2016; Accepted date: August 22, 2016; Published date: August 30, 2016
Citation: Baluchinejad T, Al Nisa Baluchinejad J, Baluchinejad M, et al. Investigating the Relationship between Descriptive Evaluation and Self Efficacy of Students of Fourth Grade Elementary School. Electronic J Biol, 12:4.
This study aimed to investigate relationship between quality-descriptive assessment program and selfefficacy of students of fourth grade elementary school. Study is descriptive - correlational. The sample consisted of 58 teachers and 580 students were randomly selected to be a census sampling. Data collection for variables used in this research is descriptive evaluation tools (questionnaires) and the variable self-efficacy (self-efficacy questionnaire Sharar was selected. In addition results were analyzed by using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between uses of tools by teachers with descriptive evaluation of self- efficacy of students by gender. There is significant positive relationship between the use of descriptive evaluation tools by teachers with self-efficacy and academic achievement of students and there is a significant relationship between use of descriptive evaluation tools by male teacher’s selfefficacy and academic achievement of students.
Descriptive evaluation; Evaluation tools; Self-efficacy.
The evaluation system for improving student learning in dramatic changes occurred and evaluation system that is based on the traditional way and some learn without thinking and considering it was meant to be descriptive evaluation with emphasis on formative assessment, evaluation and give feedback description has changed. Now what is the knowledge of teachers of descriptive evaluation tools and the use of these tools in descriptive evaluation and impact on components of effective use of these tools in education? Quality-descriptive evaluation is manner of academic evaluation - education that is necessary and authentic information. And documented for accurate and comprehensive understanding of learners in different aspects of learning, using appropriate methods and tools focused on teaching - learning provides and then, based on evidence collected regular and meaningful feedback on qualities needed to help them learn better mental space provides more favorable emotional [1-10].
The descriptive assessment approach, teachers, student’s progress with the right tools and describing verbally and sometimes in writing examined [1-5]. Interaction between teachers and students while providing feedback can be effective in development of learning toners on self. If student's performance is below standards, teacher will guide them to greater efforts. He can however offer different learning strategies. The performance of students with harmonized standards or higher, it has sense of achievement and increases their personal effectiveness. This, in turn, the efficacy students will have a positive impact. A critical component of education is learning the basic needs of efficacy in students. To realize that this point should be to enrich the learning environment and evaluation field and proper use of evaluation tools so expect to pay proper evaluation, arrangements provide educational reform. The purpose of self-belief in their ability to organize and carried out a series of activities required to manage the various situations [1-15]. Students in years of schooling, gain different experiences, mixed reactions from teachers and friends at school and on behalf of the family receive the various judgments of others and their perceptions of others' reactions, the constant thought of self.
Bandura, et al. states main mediator expectations, self-efficacy beliefs, and behavior change . Namely, low self-efficacy expectations related to a behavior or a behavioral domain leads to avoidance behavior and increases in self-efficacy, should increase the frequency of the behavior tendency to avoid behavior. Thus, self-efficacy beliefs can be helpful in understanding and predicting behavior. Educational system, by studying the factors affecting academic achievement and identify actions required to improve various aspects of academic and eliminate the existing shortcomings to bring action. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of qualitative - descriptive efficacy in the fourth grade of primary school pupils are boys and girls. One of the factors that make research assessment tools inevitable, damage and shortcomings of the existing system of academic evaluation. Some of the injuries shortcomings of the existing primary school in the academic evaluation system include: memory, lack of attention to breeding areas and different levels of learning, anxiety impose unfavorable to students, increase repeat grades. It aims to try to get place of learning, attention to mental health teaching environment - learning, attention to foster creativity and spirit of questioning. In addition, small tools and methods to evaluate alternatives, which admittedly, damage cited as whole, not true and dear teachers using new methods and tools, with the new approach have tried to minimize damage [1-16]. The sense of self-efficacy, enabling people to use their skills in dealing with obstacles do extraordinary things. Therefore, an important factor for successful self-efficacy and performance fundamental skills is necessary to do so.
1.1 The hypothesis of the study
a. There is relationship between uses of evaluation tools by teachers with students self-efficiency based on gender.
b. There is a relationship between uses of evaluation tools by teachers with female student’s self-efficiency.
c. There is relationship between uses of evaluation tools by male teachers with male student’s self-efficiency.
1.2 Theoretical foundation
The word assessment means finding values. Find out what is not limited in time, but also in training process and trying to learn, and learning is achieved [1-10]. Evaluation is "systematic process for determining the progress of learners in achieving educational goals".
"Evaluation of data collection, analysis, specified criteria and compares them with the values and decisions about them".
1.3 The overall evaluation can be defined this way
The process of collecting information about quality of learners' changes in behavior patterns, learning experiences and activities by training them and analyze this information. Finally, judging it is good or adequate. To be one's self in dealing with the issues he refers to achieve success. Efficacy greater than that affect the student's ability to learn and intelligence features, under the influence of personality traits such as your belief (confidence), being enthusiastic and not give up, when examining the causes of failure to failure (self-assessment), new makeup basics and social and reach goal (self-regulation) and control of impulses (leadership) is located. Some students even more of these factors can improve learning and academic success are [1-16].
1.4 Target evaluation in curriculum of primary
Evaluation of the primary school curriculum provide continuous and stable picture of student progress in learning. Information about child learning style (learning) and what he teaches (Learning products), and what learn learner (monitoring of learning) occurs drawing of the image is mentioned. Teacher of the data to understand the current student learning, encourage and support students facing learning he seeks profit .
1.5 Descriptive qualitative evaluation includes the following tools
a. Find which includes a checklist and event registration journalists
b. Functional Test
c. The unit of work (project)
e. The self-assessment and peer assessment
f. Paper pencil tests
h. Sensing parents
i. Storing and organizing information
k. The educational intervention
1.6 Features of descriptive evaluation plan
The methods described in the evaluation of the approach in which the teacher changes and developments in student have studied with different techniques and in detail on progress indicators or preset targets to inform student and parents. The most important feature of this kind of evaluation, for the reform and its treatment so that in due course to teachers and students the opportunity to favorable changes in the course of their activities, in order to fulfill the targets and expectations make.
a. Change the emphasis from the final evaluation formative evaluation.
b. Change scale interval (20-0) to ordinal scale (very good, good, acceptable, require more effort).
c. Diversification of tools for data collection.
d. Change in the structure of the workbook.
e. Change the reference decision about the promotion of students.
f. Full attention to all aspects of growth.
The study research in this area can be more understanding in this field. Nosrat Nahoki, et al. in his study results found that qualitative descriptive evaluation in schools compared with traditional evaluation leads to better academic achievement [1-16]. Farajollahi et al. in their study concluded that the learning of students continuing evolution of their activities is administered . In addition, final evaluation of the activities of students who come to practice, there is significant difference. Groups involved in the test plan, at different levels of learning and creativity were better than non-taxable action plan and between girls and boys groups involved plan a significant difference was observed in any of the cases .
Researcher Zari did show that student achievement was descriptive evaluation plan more students in traditional schools and while a significant difference between the two groups' attitudes toward school, descriptive evaluation group students better attitude toward school,positive correlation between academic achievement and attitudes toward school was 0.351 correlation coefficient indicates the correlation between the two is average. In this study, discussion of findings, recommendations for future research are discussed.
Rezai in a study entitled: "The effect of descriptive evaluation on cognitive characteristics, affective and psychomotor student "is concluded shows that strategies can improve the educational process of learning and reflection to learn, play an important role. It compare strategies used in descriptive evaluation plan, the necessary conditions for the growth of knowledge and cognitive and metacognitive skills, knowledge and abilities and has provided.
The results of Van evra showed that a significant increase feedback from formative assessments and school students to bring in efficiency.
Black, et al. after reviewing 250 articles on classroom assessment, the positive effects of formative assessment on academic performance (at all age levels and abilities) reported .
They also have concluded that formative assessment, standards development, promoting and this is especially for students who have little progress (low achieve) is more effective. So in this way we can to reduce the gap between students with and trappings of hyperactive accumulator at same time, to increase our overall progress.
Franchz et al. research on the impact of formative evaluation conducted on the performance of students in teaching. In this study, they concluded those students who have developmental evaluation and the outperformed students who did not have any genetic test, have enjoyed [1-16].
Another self-assessment and peer assessment tools are used for descriptive evaluation. Young, et al. in their research studies, the positive effects of self-efficiency and peer survey on the academic performance of students in different age groups have shown [1-16].
Fuchs et al. found that performance measurement, guided classes, compared with groups that performance measurement cannot be forwarded, it have more skills in problem-solving. In addition to the impact that performance measurement favorite and students' attitudes toward school and educational activities is considerable [1-16]. In general, results show that the type of learning and self-evaluation and students linked with progress and descriptive evaluation to provide feedback, in the training process academic achievement, improve and meaningful learning and was shown in other research, improve learning and academic achievement as result of formative evaluation leads to positive attitude. In addition, use of descriptive evaluation (Formative) cause serious and active participation of students in class and academic achievement than it gets.
Due to the nature of the research topic, this study is applied and in term of nature is descriptive - correlation. The study population included all fourth grade students and teachers descriptive evaluation project in Saravan city in 2014-2015 academic years and sample consisted of 58 teachers (29 female and 29 male). For male teachers and female teachers' census by random sampling of students 580 students (290 girls and 290 boys) each teacher sample of 10 students were randomly selected. The sampling for census and for female teachers, male teachers are random. Using theoretical background information and statistical data library in field method using verified test the use of descriptive evaluation tools and self-assessment test al. and the test was obtained. To check hypotheses, pearson correlation coefficient and independent t tests were used.
2.1 Research findings
The first hypothesis test
There is a relationship between the uses of evaluation tools by teachers with students self-efficiency based on gender.
In order to answer these questions correlation coefficient was used. Using the results is presented in Table 1.
|Self-efficacy assessment tools||Value||Standard deviation||t||Significance level|
|Boys student and male teachers||Pearson||0.58||0.12||3.77||0.001|
|Girl students - female teacher||Pearson||0.81||0.51||7.23||0.000|
Table 1: Relationship between the uses of evaluation tools by teachers with students self-efficiency based on gender.
As Table 1 show correlation coefficient is significant at less than 0.0 and since acceptable level is significantly less than 0.05 Thus, we conclude that there is significant positive relationship between uses of descriptive evaluation tools by teachers with students' self-efficacy in both sexes. So our hypothesis is confirmed.
The second hypothesis test
There is a relationship between the uses of evaluation tools by teachers with female student’s self-efficiency.
In order to answer the questions of the test, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results of Table 2 are presented.
|Variables||Average||Significance level||correlation coefficient||Significance level|
|The use of descriptive assessment tools female teachers||61.44||9.06||0.81||0.000|
|Self-efficacy of female students||68.38||3.32|
Table 2: Relationship between the uses of evaluation tools by teachers with female student’s self-efficiency.
As can be seen in Table 2 were 0.81 times the value of the correlation coefficient is 0.000 significant and since acceptable level is significantly less than 0.05 thus, we concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between uses of evaluation tools by teachers with self-descriptive female students. So our hypothesis is confirmed.
The Third hypothesis test
There is a relationship between uses of evaluation tools by male teachers with male student’s selfefficiency.
In order to answer questions of test, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results of Table 3 are presented.
|Variables||Mean||Significance level||Correlation coefficient||Significance level|
|The use of descriptive evaluation tools of male teachers||58.48||10.67||0.58||0.001|
|Self-efficacy male students||67.87||3.43|
Table 3: Relationship between the uses of evaluation tools by male teachers with male student’s self-efficiency.
As can be seen in Table 3, value of correlation coefficient value 0.58 has been significant 0.001 and since acceptable level is significantly less than 0.05 thus, we conclude that there is significant positive relationship between uses of evaluation tools with self-descriptive by male teachers and male students. So hypothesis is confirmed.
Effect of evaluation tools descriptive study based on self-efficacy and academic achievement of students is done. In the first hypothesis results indicate a statistically significant positive correlation between the use of self-evaluation tools described by students in terms of gender and the results were consistent with research of all scientists are approved. Data collection and correlation coefficient contingency tables show that there is significant positive relationship between the uses of self-evaluation tools by teachers to students, so the hypothesis is confirmed [10-16]. This means that teachers use assessment tools to students will be more efficient. The second hypothesis results indicate statistically significant positive correlation between use of tools by teachers with self-descriptive evaluation of female students and with results of research Salehi, et al. are non-aligned [1-16].
The data and Pearson correlation coefficient shows that there is a significant positive relationship between the uses of self-evaluation tools by teachers with female students, so the hypothesis is confirmed. This means that woman teachers of their students effective assessment tools will be used more. In the third hypothesis results indicate a statistically significant positive correlation between the use of descriptive evaluation tools by teachers' self-efficacy male with male students are consistent with results of research [1-16].
The data and Pearson correlation coefficient shows that there is a significant positive relationship between the use of self-evaluation tools by male teachers with male students, so the hypothesis is confirmed. This means teachers who use more of their student’s effective assessment tools.
3.1 Practical suggestions
a. Given that one of the axes of comprehensive attention to all aspects of developing descriptive evaluation is recommended.
b. Meetings and workshops and briefings teacher, especially primary schoolteachers to meet and descriptive evaluation tools held.
c. Due to the positive impact the descriptive evaluation and bad working instruments on learning has suggested that the plan actually provide administrative and operational areas.
d. For example, the population density will be reduced in classrooms, parents also, in the process of how and why the plan was fully aware. This measurement and evaluation tools will be provided.