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Identification of the Components of Sage (Salvia officinalisL.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgarisL.) Cultivated in Isfahan Climatic Conditions

Ahmad Reza Golparvar1,*,Amin Hadipanah2

1Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding,Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch,Islamic Azad University,Isfahan,Iran

2MSc Graduate,Horticultural - medicinal plants Science,Jiroft Branch,Islamic Azad University,Jiroft,Iran

Corresponding Author:
Ahmad Reza Golparvar
Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding
Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch
Islamic Azad University,Isfahan,Iran
Tel: +983115354001
Fax: +983115354060
E-mail: [email protected]
 
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Abstract

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) are perennial shrub and aromatic plants belongs to Lamiaceae family, native to Mediterranean Basin. Thyme and sage contain are mixture of monoterpenes. The aim of this study was to identification of the components of Sage and thyme cultivated in Isfahan climatic conditions. The aerial parts of plants were collected in Isfahan (Mymeh) Province in 2011. The aerial parts of plants analyzed by using GC/MS in Islamic Azad University Khorasgan (Isfahan). The 19 and 31 compounds were identified in dried aerial parts thyme and Sage, respectively. The results obtained in our study showed that major components thyme were; γ-Terpinene (42.35%), Thymol (14.18%), α-Thujene (10.74%), linalool (5.42%), Caryophyllene (2.942%), borneol (2.48%) and Carvacrol (1.07%). The major components sage were; Camphor (17.75%), Thujone (13.25%), 1,8-Cineole (13.03%), α-pinene (6%), β –Thujone (5.85%), α-Humulene (5.48%), β-Caryophyllene (5.07%) and borneol (3.72%). Variation in constitution can be due to both environmental and genetic factors.

Keywords

Salvia officinalis L.; Thymus vulgaris L.; chemical constitutes; GC/MS.

1. Introduction

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) are perennial shrub and aromatic plants belongs to Lamiaceae family,native to Mediterranean Basin. The sage genus Salvia contains about 700 species of annual and perennial herbs and shrubs and is worldwide in distribution. There are perhaps 58 annual and perennial herbs species in the Iran [1,2]. The plant is mostly diffuse in the Mediterranean Basin,in South East Africa and in Central and South America,where it is largely cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes [3]. The published results reveal that major volatile constituents obtained from the (Thymus vulgaris L.) aerial parts of the plant are thymol,carvacrol,p-cymene,γ-terpinene,β-caryophyllene,etc [4].

Thyme exhibits multiple biological activities including anti-inflammatory,immunomodulating,antioxidant,antibacterial,antifungal,and free radical scavenging properties. Sage similar to thyme,evinces exhibit antioxidant,anti-inflammatory,antispasmodic,antimicrobial,stimulant,and used for wound treatment,bathing,washing,skin and hair care properties [5]. Sage was used in ancient Egyptian,Greek and Roman medicines. Ancient Egyptians used it as a fertility drug. The Greeks used it to stop bleeding of wounds and to clean ulcers and sores,towards hoarseness and cough,enhancing memory functions,for gargles to treat sore mouths and throats. Sage is well known for carminative,antispasmodic,antiseptic,astringent and antihidrotic properties [6]. ISO standard 9909: for the essential oil composition of common sage prescribes the following: α-thujone,18.0-43.0%; β-thujone,3.0-8.5%; camphor,4.5-24.5%; 1,8-cineole,5.5-13.0%; α-humulene,0-12%; α-pinene,1.0-6.5%; camphene,1.5- 7.0%; limonene,0.5-3.0%; linalool and its esters,<1%; and bornyl acetate,<2.5% [7]. The German drug Codex requirements differ from the above ISO and are the following: thujones (≥20.0%),camphor (14.0–37.0%),1,8-cineole (6.0–16.0%),borneol (≤5.0%) and bornyl acetate (≤5.0%) [8]. Drug yield,essential oil content and composition in Thymus vulgaris plants showed big variation from years to years because of perennial plants[9]. Ozcan M and Chalchat JC [10] reported of the main elements of the Thymus vulgaris essential oil,as follows; thymol (46.2%),γ-terpinene (14.1%),p-cymene (9.9%),linalool (4.0%),myrcene (3.5%),α- pinene (3.0%) and α–Thujene (2.8%). The aim of this study was to identification of the components of Sage and thyme cultivated in Isfahan climatic conditions.

2. Materials and Methods

Plant materials

The aerial parts of (Thymus vulgaris L.) and (Salvia officinalis L.) were collected from the center of Iran,Province Isfahan (33◦,45_ N and 51◦,16_ E,1998 m above sea level) in 2011. The aerial parts of plants analyzed by using GC/MS in Islamic Azad University Khorasgan (Isfahan).

GC/MS analysis

The GC/MS analysis was carried out with an 20 Agilent 5975 GC-MSD system. HP-5MS column (30m x 0.25mm,0.25um film thickness) 20 was used with helium as carrier gas (1.5 mL / min). GC oven temperature was kept 20 at 50 C2 B0C for 4 min and programmed to 280 C2 B0C at a rate of 5 C2 B0C/min,and kept 20 constant at 280 C2 B0C for 5 min,at splitless mode. The injector temperature was at 20 280 C2 B0C. Transfer 20 line temperature 280 C2 B0C. MS were taken at 70 20 eV. Mass range was from m/z 35 to 450.

3. Results

The nineteen and thirty-one compounds were identified in dried aerial parts thyme and Sage,respectively. The results obtained in our study showed that major components thyme were; γ- Terpinene (42.35%),Thymol (14.18%),α-Thujene (10.74%),linalool (5.42%),Caryophyllene (2.942%),borneol (2.48%) and Carvacrol (1.07%) Other components were present in amounts less than 2 % (Table 1 & Figure 1).

table

Figure

Figure 1: Chromatogram of (Thymus vulgaris L.) dried aerial parts compounds.

The major components sage were; Camphor (17.75%),Thujone (13.25%),1,8-Cineole (13.03%),α-pinene (6%),β –Thujone (5.85%),α-Humulene (5.48%),β-Caryophyllene (5.07%) and borneol (3.72%) Among the monoterpenes,the camphor content was highest in (Salvia officinalis L.) (Table 2 & Figure 2 ).

table

Figure

Figure 2: Chromatogram of (Salvia officinalis L.) dried aerial parts compounds.

4 Discussions and Conclusions

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The results obtained in our study showed that The nineteen and thirty-one compounds were identified in dried aerial parts thyme and Sage,respectively (Table 1,2).The 17 components were identified in Thymus vulgaris essential oil such as α- pinen,β-pinen,sabinen,myrcen,limonen,p-cymol,cineol,γ-terpinen,linalool,terpineol,borneol,linalyacetat,geraniol,bornyl-acetat,thymol,carvacrol,β- caryophyllen [11]. Asllani U and Toska V [12] reported thymol (60-21%),p-cymene (43–7%) and γ-terpinene (27-4%) as the main constituents. Porte and godoy [13] reported the major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7%),p-cymene (18.6%) and γ-terpinene (16.5%).Thymus vulgaris essential oil was found to be rich in Thymol (7.44-16.58%),carvacrol (2.46-4.55%) and p-cymene (24.36- 51.26%) [14]. Characteristic compounds of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil have been established,namely: thymol (44.4–58.1%),p–cymene (9.1– 18.5%),gamma-terpinene (6.9-18.9%) and Carvacrol (2.4–4.2%) [15]. The results of the bioactive components investigation in the essential oil from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) originating from Jordan show that this oil contains all the components that determine the chromatographic picture of the plant in accordance with the International standards (α-pinene,camphene,limonene,1,8-cineole,α and β-thujone,camphor,lonalool,linalyl acetate,bornyl acetate and humulene. In the essential oil 29 components were detected,28 of them were identified and a dominant share had α-thujone (29.9%),β-thujone (13.68%),camphor (15.74%) and 1,8-cineole (12.31%) [16]. Mirza M and Baher Nik Z [17] reported the major constituents of the essential oil (Salvia lachnocalyx Hedge) were bicyclogermacrene (31.3%),α-pinene (13.2%),sabinene (11.7%) and β-pinene (10.3%). Dzumayer KH et al [18] reported the major constituents of the essential oil (Salvia schimperi Benth.) were Linalool (22-32%) and Linalool acetate (25–51%). Poor Heravi M.R et al [19] reported the major constituents of the essential oil (Salvia officinalis L.) whit HS- SPME – GC/MS method were Linalool (5.31–7.44%),Butyl benzoate (7.82–5.42%),n-Hexyl benzoate (29.17–40.21%) and Benzyl benzoate (42.92–24.14%). The yield of plant material,the essential oil content and quantitative composition of T. vulgaris can be influenced by harvest time,ecological and climatical conditions [20].

Camparison between these results and the results of the other reports showed differences,probably due to that plant varieties or sites,as well as the time of harvesting. Differences observed may be due to the different environmental and genetic factors,different chemotypes and the nutritional status of the plants or any other factors that can influence the oil composition.

Acknowledgements

This research project has been supported by Islamic Azad University,Khorasgan (Isfahan) branch,Isfahan,Iran. This support is highly appreciated.

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