Effect of Educational Pamphlet on Knowledge and Attitude of Non-Medical Students about AIDS in University Khash

Shirzad Arianmehr1, Majid Dastras2,*, Mohammad Rakhshani3, Hossein Moein4

1Department of Health Care Management, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2Department of Faculty, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

3Department of Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Science, Zahedan, Iran

4Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

Corresponding Author:
Majid Dastras
Department of Faculty
Zahedan University of Medical Sciences
Zahedan, Iran
Tel: +98-9150000001
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: January 18, 2016; Accepted date: January 31, 2017; Published date: February 07, 2017

Citation: Arianmehr S, Dastras M, Rakhshani M, et al. Effect of Educational Pamphlet on Knowledge and Attitude of Non- Medical Students about AIDS in University Khash. Electronic J Biol, 13:1

 
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Abstract

Background: Given the decisive role of youth in spreading the risk of AIDS infection, education and increasing knowledge is one of the most important ways of controlling the disease. Aim: The present study aimed to assess the effect of an educational pamphlet on knowledge and attitude of non-medical students about AIDS in University of Khash in Iran. Methods: This pre-test post-test quasi-experimental study was performed on 80 non-medical univocal students that were selected using the random sampling method. Data were collected through a researcher made questionnaire based on the study objectives; that controllability has been approved by a number of expert faculty members. The questionnaire was filled out before the educational intervention and 40 days later. Findings: Mean score of knowledge and attitude after the intervention increased from 7.76 to 15 and from 4.4 to 10.06, respectively (P<0.005). Conclusion: Since the effect of educational pamphlet on promotion of students' knowledge and attitude was approved and given the low mean score of knowledge to other non-medical students regarding prevention and control of AIDS.

Keywords

AIDS; Non-medical student; Health education.

Introduction

AIDS is a fatal disease and the fourth largest cause of death in the world. The main obstacles to the development of such communities and the majority of the population are active and productive society [1]. New cases of AIDS in 2004, 9.4 million and 1.3 million people have been reported mortality rates. According to forecasts by the World Health Organization, HIV infection rates in 2020 to ten percent. Iran is the world's riskiest countries; HIV infection is known [2]. In December 2005 to identify people infected with HIV 11930 people, in the Sistan-Baluchistan province in the year 83 372 people and 731 people in 2014 in the city of Khash 1 case has been reported under treatment [3-5]. According to the World Health Organization, a total of 2.34 million people were living with HIV in 2011, of which 30.7 million adults and 4.3 million people are under 15 years old. In 2011 the number of people newly HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) has been reported in a total of 5.2 million people, 2.2 million adults and 330,000 people who were under 15 years and the number of deaths due to AIDS in 2011 A total of 7.1 million people, of which 5.1 million adults and 230,000 were under 15 years old [6]. Iran's geographical situation is very dangerous. Iran has the highest rate of infection in northern neighbors, in East Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region can be seen [7]. There is also a long border with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the bulk of the heroin produced in the world; Iran is faced with problems of drug transit and trade [8].

According to the World Health Organization, a total of 2.34 million people were living with HIV in 2011, of which 30.7 million adults and 4.3 million people are under 15 years old. In 2011 the number of people newly HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) has been reported in a total of 5.2 million people, 2.2 million adults and 330,000 people who were under 15 years and the number of deaths due to AIDS in 2011 A total of 7.1 million people, of which 5.1 million adults and 230,000 were under 15 years old [6]. Iran's geographical situation is very dangerous. Iran has the highest rate of infection in northern neighbors, in East Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region can be seen [7]. There is also a long border with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the bulk of the heroin produced in the world; Iran is faced with problems of drug transit and trade [8].

Sistan and Baluchestan Province due to certain geographic locations, including the 1,500 kilometers of land and sea border with Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as the movement of persons in the province to the Persian Gulf countries for work, the risk of HIV and STI (Sexually transmitted infections) are that is, while the lower strata of society, culture and knowledge also increases the risk of developing the disease [9,10].

According to the World Health Organization predicts that by 2020 the rate of HIV infection in the country to 10 percent [11].

The results of several studies suggest that the AIDS education campaign and the subsequent correction of wrong attitudes in this field and promote hygienic behavior only way to prevent the disease [12-15].

To assess the effectiveness of training programs to increase knowledge of HIV View was in South Africa. In this study, 1080 students from 7 schools participated and the results of this study showed a significant increase in knowledge and awareness [16].

A study entitled "Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of non-medical students of transmission and prevention of AIDS in Rafsanjan" by Lotfi Pour et al. The results showed that improving knowledge, attitudes and practices will also improve [17].

Masoudi quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effect of video training on awareness of AIDS in Lorestan students confirmed this. In this study, 153 students before and after the intervention were completed questionnaire consciousness. On the impact of education on the knowledge of the subjects under study, statistically significant differences between pre and post-intervention, which means that the education on the students' awareness of the impact of AIDS prevention [15].

There is no reason to fear that most people think AIDS education, risky behavior increases, led to the transmission of HIV education in schools is not taken seriously, so understanding and correct knowledge and misunderstanding among the people and to especially this group of young people about AIDS seems necessary [8]. The non-medical students the same curriculum, about the disease, ways to prevent and control not included.

So it is possible to have lower medical information science students, then it should be thought that young people are the future of the special funds and prevent AIDS is to prevent the looting of investment in science and research will be young. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of non-medical health education on knowledge and attitude about was AIDS in Khash city.

Methods

Experimental and analytical study was a before and after. Students who study population Khash city by formula samples, 80 samples of college students (40 boys and 40 girls) in Khash University were selected. Because of the availability of samples in the hostel and from all levels, sampling was done in the hostel because all students have an equal chance of selection, sampling was randomly selected by random digits table, 40 boys and 40 girls were selected from the hostel dorm.

The data collected through a questionnaire on demographic information, the knowledge contained 16 questions including 11 questions were prepared and attitude. A questionnaire based on the information and resources available in books and scientific articles prepared and to gain scientific credibility of the experts and specialists in infectious disease research presented and corrective feedback was collected and ultimately approved by the supervisor and consultant, prepared a questionnaire and its reliability was confirmed. Voted the correct option has been included in the question was rated consciousness; it is the wrong answer to the questions that were unanswered, and the correct answer score of 1 was given a score of zero.

16 questions to gain knowledge together, we obtained the final score can be from zero to 16. The attitude of Likert five options for strongly agree, agree, no comment, disagree and strongly disagree was used in this method the most points (+2) to the desired option researcher and the lowest score (2) the seller was inappropriate. The final score was derived from zero to 11. In an official letter (in writing) of Zahedan Medical Sciences University study was presented to the University of Khash and purpose and nature of the study was explained to Azad University Khash. The subjects were given the assurance that all information will remain confidential them. After the pre-test and its analysis by using the software SPSS (Version 18, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) all subjects identified training needs and to design educational pamphlet and the fact that the samples were literate, select pamphlet was designed. The plan was the implementation of a pamphlet that was distributed in the accommodation between subjects. The contents of the pamphlet to lecture and Q&A session for 20 min was taught and after 40 days of conducting training and distributing pamphlets among the subjects were given a questionnaire for the second time and then they were analyzed. To assess the underlying variables on knowledge and attitudes and compare the results before and after training, Paired t Independent t-tests and ANOVA were used.

Findings

In this study, 80 students from the University of Khash with an average age of 0.21 ± 22.2 year were 50 percent female and 50 percent were male gender subjects. In terms of educational level, most frequent (46.25%) for undergraduate students and the lowest frequency of associate degree (5.2 percent). In terms of marital status, 95% of single people and married people make up 5% of samples. The most frequent location of indigenous people (91.31%) and the lowest frequency of non-indigenous people (8.8 percent). The indigenous people who were staying in Khash and villages, but because of the distance from residential facilities were used. Paired t-test a significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge and attitude before and after the educational intervention showed (P˂0.05) (Table 1).

  Post-test Pre-test    
P SD Mean SD Mean Score of criteria  
˂0.005 3.6 15 5.57 7.76 16 Awareness
˂0.005 3.93 10.06 4.05 6.45 11 Attitude

Table 1: Comparison of non-medical knowledge and attitudes of male and female students Azad University of Khash before and after intervention.

Using the correlation coefficient, a significant correlation was found between sex and knowledge. Statistical analysis ANOVA, a significant correlation between level of education and the knowledge of the subjects did not show.

It showed no significant. Independent t-test showed that there is no significant relationship between attitude and marital status. Using ANOVA test was no significant relationship between attitude and level of education. Independent t test showed that the mean change in attitude in females is higher and there was a significant relationship between gender and attitude (P˂0.020).

Discussion

Every effort is made to make health behavior, knowledge and awareness is the first key element is necessary. Thus creating awareness among the students as one of the important segments and at risk of HIV for prevention of the spread of the disease among the people and in society is very important.

Take on the findings and data from questions related to knowledge and attitude in this study show that the mean score of knowledge and attitude before the intervention and after it has been different, in fact, the effect of educational pamphlets and lectures, knowledge and attitude of students has increased. The findings of the research that has been done can be an affirmation of the findings of this study [18].

Level of knowledge two groups (pamphlets and teaching methods) will show after the intervention. Also, the attitude in the teaching methods after the intervention was more positive that this difference was significant (P˂0.05). Karimi et al. in a study entitled "Comparison of two methods of teaching methods and pamphlets on the knowledge and attitude of high school students in the Sirjan city about AIDS"; the results showed that compared the knowledge and attitudes before and after the intervention and control group, a significant difference was observed.

Researcher of the results of this study concluded that to increase awareness of AIDS through teaching methods and pamphlets, as well as to promote education approach proposed lecture [19]. Results of this study are to research, because this research is to teach the use of pamphlets and speeches that promote the knowledge and attitude.

Izazidi et al. also study entitled "The impact of education on awareness of soldiers about the dangers of smoking," that educational programs about the dangers of smoking can increase the health awareness of the soldiers in this case. This study aimed to identify, compare the effect of lecturing, pamphlet and poster presentation about smoking hazards on the soldiers' awareness. The study was a clinical trial that the 1800 soldiers of Fars province were carried out using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis indicated a significant improvement in soldiers' knowledge in all three groups (P˂0.001). In addition, a significant difference between pre-test and post-test mean difference was found between the 3 groups (P˂0.02) [20]. The findings showed the positive impact of educating through pamphlets, speeches, is that these methods were used in this study [21,22].

According to information obtained about specific examples in this article is accepted, 80 in males and females significant correlation between gender and knowledge (with the correlation coefficient) was observed. In a study of consciousness and AIDS Saki and Masoodi conducted on 153 students as well as a study on the awareness of high school students of Tuchinda and Research Associates conducted in Thailand and a significant association between sex and awareness about AIDS in their study did not consider [15,23].

The strength of the study is choice of teaching methods and the design of the study. To provide educational content and presentations with question and answer pamphlet method was used. One of the most common print media in health education is pamphlets. And to teach some sensitive issues like AIDS and sexual education is a good tool. Design overview pamphlet about AIDS, its causes, ways of transmission, complications and prevention and control was mentioned. The training method was chosen because the teaching methods of writing pamphlets and greater durability and the target group can read it in your own time as well as cultural and moral terms (in relation to AIDS) to provide more information by text message can be studied group. So in order to continue training and according to the research community to pay special attention to the dorm to admit, educational pamphlet was prepared and presented to them at their leisure and welcomed by it. Limitations of this study, political constraints AIDS situation in our country and is consequently in universities. Its constraint enjoyed sex and injection and studies of major transmission techniques are not taught safe and healthy.

In this study, the implementation of an educational program promotes awareness and creates positive attitudes about AIDS in the study population. This means that HIV positive attitude of certain people not unrestrained but may also be transmitted through the negligence of behavior and compliance with health behavior and adherence to ethical principles prevented from engaging in this disease [24,25].

Due to the low scores of knowledge to educate students about AIDS in non-medical students it's recommend program of continuous education about transmission and prevention to all students to be present in other non-medical universities and also regarding the extent and distribution of the country and aware of the fact that the students are from ethnic groups and cultures, it's recommended to train programs tailored to the cultural patterns at the right time via the mass media, especially radio and television seem necessary.

Conclusion

Since the effect of educational pamphlet on promotion of students' knowledge and attitude was approved and given the low mean score of knowledge to other non-medical students regarding prevention and control of AIDS.

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