Received date: December 06, 2016; Accepted date: December 30, 2016; Published date: January 06, 2017
Citation: Ghazi S, Mehrdad H, Karami Z, Piri R, Hasanvandi S. Contribution of school-related factors and family factors on students participation in school activities. Electronic J Biol, 13:1.
Training social skills to students is one of basic goals of education to prepare them to participate actively and constructively in the relations of social life. This study aimed to identify school-related factors and family factors on students' participation in school activities. The research method is descriptive and correlational. Participants was 269 of second grade high school boy students in Tehran in 2014-2015 academic years who were selected by multistage random sampling method.Tool was questionnaire researcher made that was confirmed by psychometric criteria. The findings showed that level of student participation in school activities was less than mean and between the partnerships with the compliance behavior of the mother, students from the teachers of the views and opinions of students in school administration, student perception of school participation, student perception of significant positive correlation. Therefore, it is necessary to increase participation of students in school, students and school authorities' further comments and conditions for participation through increased participation. School and family in the fertile imagination of students and improve student confidence from their efforts. Also, mothers have more tolerance for their children.
School; Family; School Activities; Student.
The participation means sharing partners, givesharing- intervention - share in ownership - synergies. . In general sense refers to partner participation, sharing and utilization . Participation of person's engagement and involvement in group and organizational situations stimulate individuals and way in which organizations manage subordinates (staff and students) to intervene in decisionmaking and assertiveness and initiative in form of individual and group. There are different views about participation and the view can be divided into four major perspectives tool, democratic, humane and ideological.
The rate of participation in organization or community depends on organizational structure and type of political system and style of community managers and organization. The type of organization, objectives, scope, or scope, expectations, social status and role of subordinates is effective participation in social life in all aspects. In general, partnership named two types of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional. In the one-dimensional cooperation, participation in only one runs after social or political principles. Multidimensional participation of civil society includes women's participation in political, social and cultural affairs and government .
Employee participation in decision-making has grade. Scratch is continuum of participation and consultation with various degrees traverse full participation ends. The Roadster was designed according to views of experts classifications of management science and common levels, degrees of participation are divided into three main categories: - Lack of participation - low participation - full participation. Autocratic leadership style and management incentive refers to non-participation or partial participation refers to degree to which employees acquire the right to full participation in decision-making that decision right the situation assigned to working groups .
Another obstacle is major contribution to human factors. Education in human factors includes managers and administrators in education which in power structure of education involved. Cultural barriers originated from outside organization, beliefs, norms and traditions that emphasized fundamental difference between man and man, despite them being divided into different categories of good and evil or weak and mighty .
Several factors are involved in the development of social responsibility as well as contributions such as family, school system, type of personality, social environment, etc. Among these factors are the family and the school system is the most effective.
More than just the issue of socialization in the family home education learn few rules and accept or reject but the beginning of the family's legislative culture within the family and society. Actual impact, authentic and sustainable manner believe children in family. If at home, being (mental or spiritual) personality there is some kind of child deprivation and children who have been deprived of thinking also have enjoyed.
The performance and attitude of their parents, with children divided into three categories:
A) Authoritative: Obedience One of children was considered desirable behaviors and in this way to pressure and punish more parents resort.
B) Authoritarian: This method is trying to steer children from logic principles and techniques to be used crucial in matters of discipline.
C) Indulgent: In this method, several restrictions on children's behavior in positive mode applied mainly to their desire to be more attention and act accordingly.
The three mentioned methods, techniques more powerful than other two methods in development of social responsibility and appropriate treatment was effective family.
Saenz et al.  showed that family upbringing can lead to increasing tendency of students to be in school educational activities. Study of Turner et al.  indicated that authoritative parenting style and permissive parents can increase sport participation of girls students. But parenting style authoritarian and neglectful parents cannot be predicted to increase participation of female students in sports activities. Also, support from parents to children to be physically active. Because pursuit of social and compatibility with the principles and rules it makes the social adjustment should be done with same age groups and family system. It must be familiar with their duties and thus be strengthened commitment and performance in social responsibility .
A second factor affecting participation is educational system. Education and development of individual internal unity and individuality form of social interaction features or personal characteristics only by accepting thoughts with understanding intellectually is not achieved .
Kelishadi  revealed that assuming student from school environment and school authorities directly related to student participation extracurricular activities and student participation in can predict change extra-curricular activities .
According to findings, this study aimed to identify school-related factors and family factors on students' participation in school activities.
The research method is descriptive and correlational.
The study population included all high school boys in Tehran in 2014-2015 academic years that were about 900 students. Participants were 269 of second grade high school boy students in Tehran in 2014-2015 academic years who were selected by multistage random sampling method.
Researcher made questionnaire was used to measure variables of interest is composed of three parts.
In the first 10 questions with the students' participation in school activities has been measured. In the second part 6 questions with students thought about how teachers using the comments and beliefs of students in school monitoring, perception of student participation in the school environment and student self-concept have been measured. In the third part questionnaire with 19 questions students measured relative to control compliance and acceptance mother has been measured.
The questionnaire has been approved based on the opinions of teachers and experts and reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Cronbach's alpha for whole questionnaire was obtained 0.94 and reliability of the categories higher than 0.7, therefore it had appropriate reliability.
The teachers using views and opinions of students are 6.46, which indicate mean is higher. School student participation is considered 5.74 that are almost as mean. The self-concept of student is 5.93 and more than mean. Compliance behavior of mothers towards their children is 36.39, which is higher than mean. Control behavior compared to children of mothers that mean is 30.06.
It means that only the status quo family factors influencing the participation of more than mean and be sure the variables considered in family education programs and its growing substrates provided to students in addition to efficiency, development platforms provided their participation.
The standard deviation of variables is shown in the diagram above. Most standard deviation of student participation in school activities (18.51) and the lowest related to the notion of self (1.58) and concept of school participation (1.94).
Table 1 shows weak significant and positive correlation of 0.268 with a correlation between student participation and compliance behavior of the mother is variable and that the relationship is significant at confidence level of 99%. Therefore, adoption behavior is better mothers or students feel that they are accepted by their mothers participating in the school's behavior increases.
|Participation of students||Compliance behavior of mothers|
|**. Significant at a confidence level of 99%|
Table 1: Correlation participation of students with behavior admission of mother.
Table 2 shows that there is significant inverse relation of weak correlation 0221 - Partnership between variables control the behavior of students and mother and that the relationship is significant at a confidence level of 99%. So, if behavior of the control is low or students feel they have less control over the behavior of their mothers also increased their participation in school.
|Participation of students||Control of mother|
|**. Significant at a confidence level of 99%|
Table 2: Correlation participation of students with control of mother.
Table 3 showed significant positive correlation weak correlation between students' participation and students' comments and teachers' that the relationship is significant at a confidence level of 99%.Therefore, the attitude of students to teachers is favorable opinions of students participating in the school's behavior increases.
|participation of students||using students' feedback by teachers|
|**. Significant at a confidence level of 99%|
Table 3: Correlation participation of students with using students' feedback by teachers.
Students develop social skills by increasing their participation in training and educational activities in schools is one of main objectives of public education system. This important function is state of family education systems and infrastructure in schools to engage students in different activities. In this study attempted to examine the status participation of students and its related factors. The results showed that the status quo is not satisfactory participation and low.
The relationship between the students' participation and compliance behavior of mother revealed that these two variables have direct and significant relationship
Accordingly, it can be seen from this relationship that parents who have compliance behavior, expressing love to their children and give them freedom. This sense of security for parents tries to protect children and give them favorable response. Open communication, trust and acceptance, encouraging independence, create awareness and attention to the children where and what are characteristics of parents .
The relationship between two variables showed that students' participation and control behavior mother that these two variables have significant negative relationship on basis of this relationship can be derived from it. Parental control behaviors are crackdown, punishments and severe restrictions that contribute to feeling of hostility in children. Children repressed desires isolation, lack of confidence and sense of shame in them. The children generally depressed, anxious, tense and in social relationships with others are in trouble (Figures 1 and 2) .
Accordingly, I can be affected by changes in patterns of family upbringing and improve the relationship between mothers with their children the necessary fields to increase students' willingness to participate in social activities increased.
In examining impact of educational factors, the relationship between participation of students and teachers thought students from using their viewpoints showed that these two variables have direct and significant relationship on the basis of this relationship can be seen from it that elimination of external constraints and unleashing people at school causes people to reveal their nature and most of them on a personal and social development is provided.
Correlation between the students' participation and imagination of students of school participation showed that these two variables have direct and significant relationship. Accordingly, it can be seen from this relationship that student participation in school about the possibility of his involvement in the school is effective.
Accordingly, it can be seen from this relationship that whatever student better academic success and satisfaction have become more involved in school, welcomes their inclusion and participation in school will be more believable.
It is concluded that school freer space for expression of opinion and dialogue provide individuals, people come to destinations with favorable School organization's goals and willing to participate in school activities increases. The relationship between students' participation and imagination of students showed that these two variables have a direct and significant relationship.
Research of Schuetze et al.  in this regard shows that incentives such as lack of confidence and withdrawal of non-participation are effective. Also Hamilton et al.  showed lack of confidence among students of barriers to students' participation in school affairs.
Realizing objective of participation of students is through family and school. Families with change in patterns of self-discipline and develop relationships with children and school authorities by providing necessary conditions for participation of students in school environment and motivating them to participate in public affairs can fulfill this task. Parents and school authorities should interact with each of their students and help them understand the potential.
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