The Effect of Altitude on Growth of Anthropometric and Motor Performance of 14 Year Old Adolescence

Jyan Chandra Gurung*

Kadamtala High School, Kadamtala, West Bengal, India.

*Corresponding Author:
Tel: 09733360218
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: July 04, 2017; Accepted date: December 15, 2017; Published date: December 22, 2017

Citation: Gurung JC. The Effect of Altitude on Growth of Anthropometric and Motor Performance of 14 Year Old Adolescence. Electronic J Biol, 13:4

 
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Abstract

The intention of the study was to find out the difference in some anthropometric measurements including bone length, skinfolds and motor performance of 14 years old boys of Darjeeling. The samples are school students. Researcher had taken 112 male students each from Sukhia Pokhari Higher Secondary School (Alt.-7200 ft), Trunbull higher Secondary school (Alt.-6700 ft), Jnanpith High school (Alt.-3000 ft) and Kadamtala High School (Alt.-430 ft). Researcher had measured height and weight as personal data and measured length of Sitting Height, Foot Length, Acromiale-Radiale, Radiale-Stylion Radiale, Midstylion-Dactylion, Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale, Tibiale Mediale-Sphyrion Tibiale, Tibiale Laterale Height, skinfold measurements of Triceps Skinfold Thickness, Biceps Skinfold Thickness, Subscapular Skinfold Thickness, Iliac creast Skinfold Thickness, Supra spinale Skinfold Thickness, Abdominal Skinfold Thickness and Medial calf Skinfold Thickness and similarly the motor performance including 50 m dash, Standing broad jump, Sit ups and Shuttle run. It has been observed that there were significant differences in growth of foot length, acromiale radiale, radiale-stylion radiale, midstylion-dactylion, trochanterion-tibiale laterale and tiabiale medsphyrion tibiale. There is significant fat accumulation of fat on medial calf region due to altitude difference. Researcher also got significant difference in performance of shuttle run and sit ups performance due to variation in altitude.

Keywords

Bone length; Skinfold thickness; Motor performance; Male students.

1. Introduction

Various researches regarding altitude and its effect on human body have been done and researches reveal that there is an effect of altitude on human body. These research will help to prepare diet chart for school students and take preventive measure as what body type they have and susceptible to which disease according to their body type [1-3].

Variation in anthropometric and motor performance due to altitude is a huge concern of research. The performance of athletes in Mexico Olympic has force researchers to think about effect of altitude on human body [4]. With increase in altitude physiological changes like increase in haemoglobin, lung’s alveoli, etc., due to low air pressure has encourage coaches and trainers to train their athletes in high altitudes. Researcher wants to find out how altitude effects on growth of our bones, fat accumulation as well as motor performance of an individuals. Even physical appearance of the individuals residing at different altitudes seems different. So altitude has always been a mystery to the researcher. People residing at high altitude will have more blood compare to individual residing at low altitude so athletes and coaches prefer high altitude training than blood dopping to enhance their performance in their respective sports [5,6].

2. Methods

2.1 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of living altitudes on bone growth, skinfold thickness and motor performance of 14 years old school going male adolescents of four different altitudes of Darjeeling district. 100 students were taken for the research.

2.2 The subjects

One hundred school going male students from four different altitudes were selected randomly as the subject of study. The altitudes were 430 ft, 3000 ft, 6700 ft and 7200 ft, respectively. The age of the subjects was 14 years taken from school records.

2.3 Criterion measures

Researcher had measured age, height and weight as personal data and measured the following parameters (Table 1).

Personal Data (Age, Height, weight) Circumference: Sitting Height, Foot Length, Acromiale-Radiale, Radiale-Stylion Radiale, Midstylion-Dactylion, Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale, Tibiale Mediale-Sphyrion Tibiale, Tibiale Laterale Height
Motor Performance (50 meter dash, Standing broad jump, Sit ups and Shuttle run)  Skinfold Thickness: Triceps Skinfold Thickness, Biceps Skinfold Thickness, Subscapular Skinfold Thickness, Iliac creast Skinfold Thickness, Supra spinale Skinfold Thickness, Abdominal Skinfold Thickness and Medial calf Skinfold Thickness             

Table 1. Criterion measures.

From Table 2 it was found that the mean height of Group-A (7200 ft), Group-B (6700 ft), Group-C (3000 ft) and Group-D (430 ft) were 1.52 m, 1.56 m, 1.57 m and 1.58 m Similarly the mean weights were 41.12 kg, 43.04 kg, 42.88 kg and 44.20 kg.

Altitude N Height Weight
Mean
(meter)
SD SEM (±) CD (P=0.05) Mean
(Kg)
SD SEM (±) CD (P=0.05)
Age 14  
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 1.52 0.077 0.014 0.039 41.12 6.790 1.337 NS
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 1.56 0.074 0.014 0.039 43.04 7.684 1.337 NS
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 1.57 0.054 0.014 0.039 42.88 4.790 1.337 NS
Group-D (430 ft) 25 1.58 0.065 0.014 0.039 44.20 7.118 1.337 NS

Table 2. Mean and S.D of height and weight of four different altitudes.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Overall results and discussion on sitting height and foot length

From Tables 3A-3C, it was found that the higher growth in sitting height occurs at an altitude of 3000 ft (Group-C) followed by Group-D (430 ft), Group-B (6700 ft) and Group-A (7200 ft).

Altitude   Sitting Height Foot length
N Mean
(cm.)
SD SEm (±) CD (P=0.05) Mean
(cm.)
SD SEm (±) CD (P=0.05)
Age 14  
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 78.76 3.597 0.805 NS 23.11 1.713 0.252 0.706
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 80.36 4.760 0.805 NS 22.34 1.416 0.252 0.706
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 81.72 3.857 0.805 NS 22.77 0.495 0.252 0.706
Group-D (430 ft) 25 80.56 3.787 0.805 NS 23.69 1.079 0.252 0.706
Age 14   Acromiale radiale Radiale-Stylion Radiale
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 25.03 2.326 0.408 1.144 21.70 1.320 0.299 0.838
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 25.72 2.766 0.408 1.144 22.71 2.192 0.299 0.838
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 25.98 1.453 0.408 1.144 22.10 0.904 0.299 0.838
Group-D (430 ft) 25 27.95 1.215 0.408 1.144 22.91 1.254 0.299 0.838
Age 14   Midstylion-dactylion Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 15.19 0.909 0.164 0.460 35.21 2.818 0.591 1.657
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 17.37 0.869 0.164 0.460 33.26 3.417 0.591 1.657
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 15.74 0.421 0.164 0.460 36.50 3.000 0.591 1.657
Group-D (430 ft) 25 16.34 0.958 0.164 0.460 36.20 2.508 0.591 1.657
Age 14   Tibiale med-sphyrion tibiale Tibiale laterale height
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 33.64 3.414 0.503 1.410 39.54 3.615 0.577 NS
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 35.62 2.670 0.503 1.410 40.62 3.375 0.577 NS
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 34.72 1.869 0.503 1.410 40.78 1.972 0.577 NS
Group-D (430 ft) 25 36.64 1.738 0.503 1.410 40.92 2.226 0.577 NS

Table 3A. Mean and S.D of linear measurements of four different altitudes.

Source Sitting Height Foot length
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Age 14                    
Altitude 111.23 3 37.077 2.288 0.083 24.262 3 8.087 5.093 0.003
Error 1555.52 96 16.203     152.435 96 1.588    
Total 647279 100       52970.95 100      
Age 14 Acromiale radiale Radiale-Stylion Radiale
Altitude 117.601 3 39.2 9.418 0 23.172 3 7.724 3.457 0.019
Error 399.576 96 4.162     214.494 96 2.234    
Total 69019.77 100       50216.74 100      
Age 14 Midstylion-dactylion Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale
Altitude 65.012 3 21.671 32.382 0 160.495 3 53.498 6.13 0.001
Error 64.245 96 0.669     837.763 96 8.727    
Total 26244.14 100       125579 100      
Age 14 Tibiale med-sphyrion tibiale Tibiale laterale height
Altitude 122.229 3 40.743 6.443 0.001 29.341 3 9.78 1.175 0.324
Error 607.098 96 6.324     799.286 96 8.326    
Total 124316.7 100       164570.3 100      

Table 3B. Analysis of linear measurements of four different altitudes.

(I) Altitude (J) Altitude Sitting Height Foot length
Mean Difference (I-J) Sig. Mean Difference (I-J) Sig.
Age 14
Group-A Group-B -1.6 0.163 0.7680* 0.034
Group-C -2.96* 0.011 0.336 0.348
Group-D -1.8 0.117 -0.58 0.107
Group-B Group-C -1.36 0.235 -0.432 0.228
Group-D -0.2 0.861 -1.3480* 0
Group-C Group-D 1.16 0.311 -0.9160* 0.012
Age 14 Acromiale radiale Radiale-Stylion Radiale
Group-A Group-B -0.692 0.233 -1.008* 0.019
Group-C -0.952 0.102 -0.404 0.342
Group-D -2.920* 0 -1.212* 0.005
Group-B Group-C -0.26 0.653 0.604 0.156
Group-D -2.228* 0 -0.204 0.631
Group-C Group-D -1.968* 0.001 -0.808 0.059
Age 14 Midstylion-dactylion Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale
Group-A Group-B -2.176* 0 1.948* 0.022
Group-C -0.552* 0.019 -1.292 0.125
Group-D -1.144* 0 -0.992 0.238
Group-B Group-C 1.624* 0 -3.240* 0
Group-D 1.032* 0 -2.940* 0.001
Jnanpith High School Group-D -0.592* 0.012 0.3 0.72
Age 14 Tibiale mediale-sphyrion tibiale Tibiale laterale height
Group-A Group-B -1.9800* 0.006 -1.08 0.189
Group-C -1.072 0.135 -1.232 0.134
Group-D -2.9920* 0 -1.372 0.096
Group-B Group-C 0.908 0.205 -0.152 0.853
Group-D -1.012 0.158 -0.292 0.721
Group-C Group-D -1.9200* 0.008 -0.14 0.864

Table 3C. Least Significant Difference and Multiple Comparisons for linear measurements.

It was found from the study of some researchers that the average sitting height was found. For 14 year old under privileged North West Indian adolescents it was 78.01 cm with S.D of 5.77 and for Chhattisgarh Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya adolescents it was 78.11 cm with S.D of 4.71 and for Chhattisgarh Kendriya Vidyalaya students it was 81.41 cm with S.D of 4.47 [7] and for Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa it was 72.7 cm with S.D of 3.6 and for male students of 24 Pgs (N), West Bengal, it was 73.20 cm with S.D of 4.02. Analysing the result of sitting it may be concluded that the present study has close proximity to Shukla et al. [7].

Similarly the higher growth in foot length was found at an altitude of 430 ft. For Foot length growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group- D>Group-A>Group-C>Group-B. Results from the present study show that with decrease in altitude foot length increases.

3.2 Overall results and discussion on acromiale radiale and radiale-stylion radiale

From the study it was found that the growth rate of acromiale radiale was higher at an altitude of 430 ft (Group-D). Growth of acromiale radiale may be arranged in descending order as Group-D>Group- C>Group-B>Group-A [8,9].

It was found from the study of Fryar et al. [4] that the average length of acromiale radiale of 14 year old adolescents of United States was 36.3 cm. with SEM of 0.25.

The growth of radiale-stylion radiale was higher at an altitude of 430 ft (Group-D). For Radialestylion radiale growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-D>Group-B>Group- C>Group-A.

It was found that students residing at lowest altitude have longer acromiale radiale and genetic factors may be behind this reality. Apart from genetic factors these male students belong to urban areas and being from lower middle class family they had to travel hanging inside the bus with their hands everyday may lead to longer acromiale radiale.

3.3 Overall results and discussion on midstyliondactylion and trochanterion-tibiale laterale length

From the study it was found that the growth rate of Midstylion-dactylion was higher at an altitude of 6700 feet (Group-B). For Midstylion-dactylion growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group-D>Group-C>Group-A.

The growth of Trochanterion-tibiale laterale length was higher at an altitude of 3000 ft (Group-C). For Trochanterion-tibiale laterale growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-C>Group- D>Group-A>Group-B.

It was found from the study of Fryar et al. [4] that the average length of Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale (upper leg length) of 14 year old adolescents of United States was 40.5 cm with SEM of 0.28.

3.4 Overall results and discussion on tibiale laterale height and tibiale mediale-sphyrion tibiale length

From the study it was found that the growth rate of Tibiale mediale-sphyrion tibiale was higher at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For Tibiale medialesphyrion tibiale growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-D>Group-B>Group- C>Group-A.

The growth of Tibiale laterale height was higher at an altitude of 430 ft (Group-D). For Tibiale laterale height growth pattern, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-D>Group-C>Group- B>Group-A. During 13 years, tibiale laterale height was longer in lowest altitude but with increase in age growth rate of highest altitude becomes more.

3.5 Overall results and discussion on triceps skinfold thickness

From the Tables 4A-4C, it was found that fat accumulation in triceps region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For triceps growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group-A>Group-C>Group-D.

Altitude N Triceps  
Mean
(mm)
SD SEM (±) CD (P=0.05) Mean
(mm.)
SD SEM (±) CD (P=0.05)
Age 14                  
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 4.27 1.422 0.247 NS - - - -
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 4.46 1.466 0.247 NS - - - -
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 3.92 0.686 0.247 NS - - - -
Group-D (430 ft) 25 3.57 1.203 0.247 NS - - - -
Age 14   Biceps Sub Scapular
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 2.04 0.476 0.110 NS 3.67 1.121 0.181 NS
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 2.24 0.688 0.110 NS 3.78 1.014 0.181 NS
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 2.03 0.346 0.110 NS 3.59 0.737 0.181 NS
Group-D (430 ft) 25 2.03 0.619 0.110 NS 3.76 0.681 0.181 NS
Age 14   Iliac Creast Supra Spinale
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 3.99 1.722 0.327 NS 3.16 1.277 0.266 NS
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 4.64 2.341 0.327 NS 3.51 1.512 0.266 NS
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 4.12 0.850 0.327 NS 3.44 0.844 0.266 NS
Group-D (430 ft) 25 4.39 1.229 0.327 NS 3.49 1.557 0.266 NS
Age 14   Abdominal Medial Calf
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 4.19 1.706 0.321 NS 3.48 0.905 0.214 0.600
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 4.53 2.116 0.321 NS 4.61 1.699 0.214 0.600
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 4.32 0.894 0.321 NS 3.26 0.584 0.214 0.600
Group-D (430 ft) 25 4.48 1.460 0.321 NS 3.50 0.735 0.214 0.600

Table 4A. Mean and S.D of skinfold thickness of four different altitudes.

(I) Altitude (J) Altitude Triceps  
Mean Difference (I-J) Sig. Mean Difference (I-J) Sig.
Age 14          
Group-A Group-B -0.192 0.584 - -
Group-C 0.348 0.321 - -
Group-D 0.700* 0.048 - -
Group-B Group-C 0.540 0.125 -  
Group-D 0.892* 0.012 - -
Group-C Group-D 0.352 0.316 - -
Age 14   Biceps Sub Scapular
Group-A Group-B -0.200 0.200 -0.112 0.663
Group-C 0.008 0.959 0.076 0.768
Group-D 0.004 0.979 -0.088 0.732
Group-B Group-C 0.208 0.183 0.188 0.466
Group-D 0.204 0.191 0.024 0.926
Group-C Group-D -0.004 0.979 -0.164 0.524
Age 14   Iliac Creast Supra Spinale
Group-A Group-B -0.656 0.159 -0.356 0.346
Group-C -0.128 0.782 -0.280 0.458
Group-D -0.404 0.384 -0.336 0.373
Group-B Group-C 0.528 0.256 0.076 0.840
Group-D 0.252 0.587 0.020 0.958
Group-C Group-D -0.276 0.552 -0.056 0.882
Age 14   Abdominal Medial Calf
Group-A Group-B -0.344 0.451 -1.136* 0.000
Group-C -0.132 0.772 0.212 0.486
Group-D -0.296 0.516 -0.020 0.947
Group-B Group-C 0.212 0.642 1.348* 0.000
Group-D 0.048 0.916 1.116* 0.000
Group-C Group-D -0.164 0.719 -0.232 0.446

Table 4B. Analysis of skinfold thickness of four different altitudes.

Source Triceps  
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Age 14                    
Altitude 11.62 3 3.873 2.544 0.061
Error 146.169 96 1.523  -  -
Total 1801.28 100  -  -  -
Age 14 Biceps Sub Scapular
Altitude 0.781 3 0.26 0.866 0.462 0.556 3 0.185 0.225 0.879
Error 28.86 96 0.301 79.014 96 0.823
Total 463.53 100 1447.83 100
Age 14 Iliac Creast Supra Spinale
Altitude 6.428 3 2.143 0.803 0.495 2.046 3 0.682 0.387 0.763
Error 256.22 96 2.669 169.284 96 1.763
Total 2098.77 100 1326.65 100  
Age 14 Abdominal Medial Calf
Altitude 1.86 3 0.62 0.24 0.868 27.826 3 9.275 8.089 0
Error 247.634 96 2.58 110.079 96 1.147
Total 2168.81 100 1515.8 100

Table 4C. Least significant difference and multiple comparisons for skinfold thickness.

Altitude N Shuttle Run 50 mt.dash
Mean
(seconds, s)
SD SEm (±) CD (P=0.05) Mean
(seconds, s)
SD SEm (±) CD (P=0.05)
Age 14                  
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 11.93 0.817 0.118 0.331 8.60 0.466 0.088 NS
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 11.18 0.470 0.118 0.331 8.66 0.402 0.088 NS
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 10.62 0.474 0.118 0.331 8.45 0.333 0.088 NS
Group-D (430 ft) 25 11.67 0.521 0.118 0.331 8.77 0.529 0.088 NS
Age 14   Standing Broad Jump Sit Ups
Group-A (7200 ft) 25 1.70 0.179 0.032 NS 15.00 3.617 0.581 1.629
Group-B (6700 ft) 25 1.76 0.187 0.032 NS 17.48 2.330 0.581 1.629
Group-C (3000 ft) 25 1.72 0.128 0.032 NS 15.48 2.163 0.581 1.629
Group-D (430 ft) 25 1.72 0.129 0.032 NS 20.76 3.257 0.581 1.629

Table 5A. Mean and S.D of motor performance of four different altitudes.

Source Shuttle Run 50 mt. dash
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Age 14                    
Altitude 25.085 3 8.362 24.169 0.000 1.403 3 0.468 2.431 0.070
Error 33.214 96 0.346 - - 18.464 96 .192 - -
Total 12936.46 100 - - - 7448.583 100 - - -
Age 14 Standing Broad Jump Sit Ups
Altitude 0.049 3 0.016 0.647 0.587 513.720 3 171.24 20.269 0.000
Error 2.401 96 0.025 - - 811.040 96 8.448 - -
Total 300.289 100 - - - 30840.000 100 - - -

Table 5B. Analysis of motor performance of four different altitudes.

(I) Altitude (J) Altitude Shuttle Run 50 m dash
Mean Difference (I-J) Sig. Mean Difference (I-J) Sig.
Age 14          
Group-A Group-B 0.7492* 0.000 -0.0584 0.639
Group-C 1.3100* 0.000 0.1540 0.217
Group-D 0.2552 0.128 -0.1748 0.162
Group-B Group-C 0.5608* 0.001 0.2124 0.090
Group-D -0.4940* 0.004 -0.1164 0.350
Group-C Group-D -1.0548* 0.000 -0.3288* 0.009
Age 14   Standing Broad Jump Sit Ups
Group-A Group-B -0.0588 0.192 -2.4800* 0.003
Group-C -0.0168 0.708 -0.4800 0.561
Group-D -0.0132 0.769 -5.7600* 0.000
Group-B Group-C 0.0420 0.350 2.0000* 0.017
Group-D 0.0456 0.311 -3.2800* 0.000
Group-C Group-D 0.0036 0.936 -5.2800* 0.000

Table 5C. Least Significant Difference and Multiple Comparisons for motor performance.

It was found from the study of Fryar et al. [4], the average triceps skinfold thickness of 14 year old adolescents of United States was 12.9 mm with SEM of 0.83; for Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa, it was 5.6 mm with S.D of 1.8 [10] and for Bengali Boys of Nimta, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal it was 7.3 mm with S.D of 2.4 [1].

3.6 Overall results and discussion on biceps and sub scapular skinfold thickness

From the study it was found that fat accumulation in biceps region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For biceps growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group- A>Group-C=Group-D.

It was found from the study of Chakrabarty and Bharati [10] that the average biceps skinfold thickness of 14 year old Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa was 3.2 mm with S.D of 0.6 and for Bengali Boys of Nimta, West Bengal it was 4.6 mm with S.D of 1.7 [1].

From the study it was found that fat accumulation in sub scapular region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For sub scapular growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group- B>Group-D>Group-A>Group-C.

It was found from the study of Fryar et al. [4], the average sub scapular skinfold thickness of 14 year old adolescents of united states was 11 mm with SEM of 0.68, for Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa it was 7 with S.D of 1.6 [10] and for Bengali Boys of Nimta, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal it was 9.3 mm with S.D of 3.7 [1].

3.7 Overall results and discussion on iliac creast and supra spinale skinfold thickness

From the study it was found that fat accumulation in biceps region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For iliac creast growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group- D>Group-C>Group-A.

It was found from the study of Chakrabarty and Bharati [10] that the average Iliac creast skinfold thickness of 14 year old Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa was 5.7 mm with S.D of 1.5 and for Bengali Boys of Nimta, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal it was 9.5 mm with S.D of 4.3 [1].

It was found that fat accumulation in supra spinale region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For supra spinale growth, it may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group-D>Group-C>Group-A.

It was found from the study that the average supra spinale skinfold thickness of 13-15 years old adolescents of Zaria, Nigeria was 0.48 cm with S.D of 0.15.

3.8 Overall results and discussion on abdominal and medial calf skinfold thickness

From the study it was found that fat accumulation in abdominal region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For abdominal skinfold thickness growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group-D>Group-C>Group-A.

It was found from the study of Chakrabarty and Bharati [10] that the average abdominal skinfold thickness of 14 year old Shabar Tribal Adolescents of Orissa was 7.1 mm with S.D of 2.4.

It was found that fat accumulation in medial calf region was found more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For medial calf skin fold thickness growth, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group- B>Group-D>Group-A>Group-C.

It was found from the study of Mukhopadhyay et al. [1] that the average medial calf skinfold thickness of 14 year old Bengali Boys of North 24 Parganas, W. Bengal was 8.4 mm. with S.D of 2.2 (Tables 5A-5C).

3.9 Overall results and discussion on shuttle run and 50 m dash

From the study it was found that performance in shuttle run was more at an altitude of 3000 ft (Group-C). For Shuttle run performance, groups may be arranged according to superiority in descending order as Group-C>Group-B>Group-D>Group-A.

It was found from the study of Paul [9], the average shuttle run speed (m/s) of 14 year old male students of 24 Pgs (N), West Bengal was 11.20 s with S.D of 0.46 and worldwide average shuttle run speed was 11.517 with S.D of 1.323. Analysing the result of shuttle run it may be concluded that the present study has close proximity to Paul [9].

It was found that performance in 50 m Dash was more at an altitude of 3000 ft (Group-C). For 50 m Dash performance, groups may be arranged according to superiority in descending order as Group-C>Group- A>Group-B>Group-D.

It was found from the study of Paul [9], the average 50 m run speed (m/s) of 14 year old male students of 24 Pgs (N), West Bengal was 8.36 s with S.D of 0.72.

3.10 Overall results and discussion on S.B.J and sit ups

From the study it was found that performance in standing broad jump was more at an altitude of 6700 ft (Group-B). For standing broad jump of age group 14, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-B>Group-C=Group-D>Group-A.

It was found from the study of Paul [9], the average standing broad jump of 14 year old male students of 24 Pgs (N), West Bengal was 171.37 cm with S.D of 15.92 and for Macedonian school children it was 180.5 cm with S.D of 28.07. Analysing the result of standing broad jump it may be concluded that the present study has close proximity to Paul [9].

It was found that performance in sit ups was more at an altitude of 430 feet (Group-D). For sit ups, i.e., abdominal strength performance, groups may be arranged in descending order as Group-D>Group- B>Group-C>Group-A.

4. Conclusion

From above findings following conclusions can be drawn:

• Group-B (Altitude-6700 ft) male students had greater Midstylion-dactylion, growth and greater Triceps, Biceps, Sub Scapular, IliacCreast, Supra Spinale, Abdominal and Medial Calf skinfold thickness and can perform better in Standing Broad Jump among four different altitudes.

• Group-C (Altitude-3000 ft) male student had greater Sitting Height, Trochanterion-Tibiale Laterale length and perform better in Shuttle Run and 50 m dash.

• Group-D (Altitude-430 ft) male student had greater Foot length, Acromiale radiale, Radiale-Stylion Radiale, Tibiale med-sphyrion tibiale, Tibiale laterale height and perform better in Sit Ups among four different altitudes.

5. Recommendation

• Similar type of study can be done for different age groups.

• Similar type of study can be done on other anthropometric measurements.

• Similar type of study can be done on different altitude.

• Study regarding the causes behind such variation in growth can be done.

References

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  • 6th Annual Congress on Biology and Medicine of MoleculesSeptember 20-21, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 13th International Conference on Biologics and BiosimilarsOctober 24-25, Boston, USA
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